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The rise of Middle English:
But it was no longer the Anglo-Saxon language, such a process had it undergone of what we must call organic evolution.With such an audience, literature left the heroic, and became sophisticated and "polite" in tone. The men responsible for the production of literature in England under the Normans were the trouvers and troubadours(minstrel) who sang narrative poems. These medieval French epics are products of a feudal age, and as such are conceived in the conventions of chivalary, like The Song of Roland. The French narrative poems fall into three subject-groups: "The subjects about France" "about Britain", "about Rome" The subjects about France are to be found in the epic poems dealing with the deeds of Charlemagne and his knights.Not less than five, perhaps more, racial strands make up the basis of the tongue which has produced English literature.The Neolithic peoples, the Celtic, the Anglo-Saxon, the DanishNorse and the Norman-each has a share in it, however small.Perhaps the Stone Age peoples passed on some power of symbols, the magic, of making inanimate things live by words?The Brythonic Celts brought to English their idealistic imagination, their passionate melancholy, their as passionate self-mockery; the Irish, directly or through Breton and Norman,supplied many of the richly various rhythms for its lyric poetry.The Anglo-Saxons gave the tongue supple, subtle restraint,reasonableness, philosophic capacity, but also an enduring sense of the sea, of storm, of grave, even sinister, peril and adventure always to be undertaken.And through the centuries up to today Celtic and Anglo-Saxon language ad literature, tradition and change, in Scots, Irish.Welsh and English writers, have enriched each other and prevented each other from stagnating.After two centuries the wide gap between Norman and Englishmen became narrower and narrower and by the 14 century one language and escape from boredom, and he kept his minstrel to entertain him and delight his guest by reciting poetry.


النص الأصلي

The rise of Middle English:
But it was no longer the Anglo-Saxon language, such a process had it undergone of what we must call organic evolution. In manners, melody, reason, knowledge of poetic form, and ideas, so different did it emerge from Anglo-Saxon,that we call it Middle English.
It is for this reason that some argue that English literature begins only after the twelfth-century development into Middle English.
Not less than five, perhaps more, racial strands make up the basis of the tongue which has produced English literature.The Neolithic peoples, the Celtic, the Anglo-Saxon, the DanishNorse and the Norman-each has a share in it, however small.Perhaps the Stone Age peoples passed on some power of symbols, the magic, of making inanimate things live by words?The Brythonic Celts brought to English their idealistic imagination, their passionate melancholy, their as passionate self-mockery; the Irish, directly or through Breton and Norman,supplied many of the richly various rhythms for its lyric poetry.The Anglo-Saxons gave the tongue supple, subtle restraint,reasonableness, philosophic capacity, but also an enduring sense of the sea, of storm, of grave, even sinister, peril and adventure always to be undertaken.
As the vehicle for both poetry and prose, English Was slowly to acquire both depth of feeling for human character and for nature, as well as power of thought. All these are vital for prose and poetry. From Norman-French, English derived what Emile Legouis has called. (movement, gaiety, and light)' Gaiety and light wove themselves into the Anglo-Saxon, northern awareness of the end of all earthly things.
This was the confused mixture out of which Middle English rose from the ashes of its former self. It is perhaps through its prolonged struggle from this time onward that English literature has developed its particular strength. And through the centuries up to today Celtic and Anglo-Saxon language ad literature, tradition and change, in Scots, Irish.Welsh and English writers, have enriched each other and prevented each other from stagnating. Until the sophisticated or mature complexity of today's English literature is reached.
THE MIDDLE ENGLISH PERIOD
The Intellectual Background:
With the Norman Conquest in 1066 the literary scene changes. When William The Conqueror, Duke of Normandy came to England, it was the culture of France that he brought with him. So, at first we could get in England, under William and his successors, a country of two peoples and two languages.While the mass of the people continued to speak the old English tongue, their French rulers, the court, the nobility, and the clergy spoke and wrote French, which became the language of the school and the law-court. Thus, one could even see a number of the best literary writers living in the English conrt and writing for a class that thought of itself as French. This very division of England into French lord and English subject was recorded by Sir Walter Scott in his novel Ivanhoe.
But living in England, the Norman Lords could not keep to themselves, and so the intermixing of the two cultures was inevitable. After two centuries the wide gap between Norman and Englishmen became narrower and narrower and by the 14 century one language and escape from boredom, and he kept his minstrel to entertain him and delight his guest by reciting poetry. With such an audience, literature left the heroic, and became sophisticated and "polite" in tone.
The men responsible for the production of literature in England under the Normans were the trouvers and troubadours(minstrel) who sang narrative poems. These medieval French epics are products of a feudal age, and as such are conceived in the conventions of chivalary, like The Song of Roland. The French narrative poems fall into three subject-groups: "The subjects about France" "about Britain", "about Rome" The subjects about France are to be found in the epic poems dealing with the deeds of Charlemagne and his knights. Of this kind the ea


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