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short stories. Different from previous death discussed above, most
victims of death caused by disease are female, for example, female
characters in The Oval Portrait, Berenice, Morella and The Fall of
the House of Usher all die at early ages, which are not simple
embodiment of uncertain destiny or to make people lament through
destruction of beauties. Death caused by disease is of particular
significance if roles played by males are considered.
Allen Poe’s love and worship for females have made females in
his works beautiful and charming. Death caused by disease is widely
different from murder and suicide as disease brings physical damages
and withering of appearance gradually. At a later stage, the
characteristics of beauty held by women are stripped, and the time
beauty dies away is exactly the time death falls. Allen Poe reveals
that loss of love from dominant position is fatal and deprivation of
beauty equals deprivation of life.
3. Causes of Allen Poe’s Thanatopsis
The formation of Allen Poe’s thanatopsis is influenced by
many factors which include both external and internal factors. For
example, social historical background, cultural perspective,
knowledge structure, hobbies and interests and life experiences all
influence his thanatopsis to varying degrees. This chapter shall
discuss causes of his complicated and changing thanatopsis from
three main aspects.
3.1 Cultural Background
Allen Poe enters academic circles as a literary critic. At that
time, Washington Irving and Fenimore Cooper enjoyed a high
reputation, but Allen Poe held a different idea. Most contemporary
writers, including Irving, had been criticized by Allen Poe. He
worshiped English literature and believed American excellent works
were far behind English works. These strident remarks in fact
revealed his worry for American literature and wish for an equal
position of American literature as English literature. There’re
profound origins for his worship for English literature.
First, he had a long history with UK. When he was 18 years old,
he had moved with his adoptive father John Poe to England and then
settled down in London. He had lived in England for five years,
during which foreign life had impressed him deeply. The novel
William Wilson is set against a lord’s house which is used as a school,
and the background information “My earliest recollections of a
school-life, are connected with a large, rambling, Elizabethan house,
in a misty-looking village of England, where were a vast number of
gigantic and gnarled trees, and where all the houses were excessively
ancient.” shows that Allen Poe remembered life then and his worship
for English literature began at that time. He had special love for
works of English writer Samuel Taylor Coleridge and his romantic
theories spreading to the 19th century. When he returned to America,
he not only reads lots of English writers’ works, but also concludes
his own unique explanation through hard work and divided spiritual
world of Samuel Taylor Coleridge into three categories.
Besides, as a magazine editor, he wished to have the best
magazine in America, so he drew upon English magazine. He is
particularly fond of Fraser's Magazine and Blackwood's Edinburgh
Magazine, and the later magazine is popular on both sides of the
Atlantic for its issue of appalling articles, of which Allen Poe had
mentioned many times in his works. Allen Poe’s first novel
Metzengerstein is no different from popular gothic novels that time,
but later he had developed his own styles while inheriting traditional
gothic novel’s expression of death. His unique style is greatly related
to his accumulation of knowledge and interests.
3.2. Knowledge and Interests
While studying in University of Virginia, Allen Poe had read
lots of literal works and some books on American history. When he
studied at West Point, he received military management and learned
scientific knowledge on algebra, geometry, physics and chemistry as
the academy attached high importance to education of military theory
and scientific knowledge, paid less attention to literature and even
forbade students to keep books of novels and poems. It’s the study
then that made him interested in science. Allen Poe’s sensitivity had
helped him easily capture slight changes of human’s mentality, and
the accumulation of scientific knowledge and cultivation of scientific
habits had made him show yearn for science and sense, which is of
particular use even in works with death theme. At the same time, he’s
a reader with extensive hobbies; besides works of literature and
philosophy, he’s also interested in science and cryptology and uses
these knowledge to write whodunits; what’s more, he also learns
some popular pseudoscience, hypnotism and some other knowledge
aimed at exploring instincts. He finds that human’s sense is the most
active and their emotion is the least repressed regarding life and death.
Therefore, there’re lots of descriptions about mental disorder,
telepathy and some other abnormal or special thoughts, by doing so
Allen Poe tries to show that glimmer of human’s inner soul will be
doubled when they face death.
3.3. Personal Experiences
Allen Poe, by extraordinary imagination, has described death in
great details for us as he has experienced much death in his life. Allen
Poe was born in Boston in 1819. His father died in 1810, and the next
year his mother Elizabeth Poe died of tuberculosis. When he was
three years old, he was adopted by a tobacco supplier John Allen who
was from Richmond. His adoptive mother passed away in 1829 and
he left home for Baltimore as he broke up with his adoptive father. In
Baltimore, he lived with his aunt Maria Ctemm and his sister Virginia
and his brother Henry Poe. However, Henry died of intemperance
and tuberculosis in August. Allen Poe adored Henry as Henry had
rich experiences: he had been a sailor and written poems in
newspapers. Therefore, his death influenced Allen Poe greatly.
Allen Poe married Virginia in 1836. His wife and aunt had
given him great comfort, and they lived a peaceful and happy life
even though they’re poor. However, good times don’t last long. In
1842, Virginia’s blood vessels burst when she was singing. Tough her
life was saved, she had never been as healthy as before and her
disease repeated constantly, which resulted in Allen Poe’s fluctuation
between desperation and hope. Then he began intemperance. He was
found to be insensible on the street of Baltimore on 3, October, 1849,
and passed away in the hospital three days later. Then he was buried
carelessly in Westminster Abbey. In over forty years, Edgar Ellen Poe
had been from Richmond to London, and then back to Richmond. He
had described death millions of times in his stories. He had to face
death of so many people, Elizabeth, Dave Poe, Fanny Allen, Henry
Poe and Virginia, and eventually his own death. In his novel, there’re
reverence toward death, humorous banter, courage facing death and
efforts to go beyond death. In fact, he had recorded all his painful and
happy moments into the story and described those common feelings
of human beings subtly.
4. Conclusion
Leading characters in Allen Poe’s works had a soul-striking
opposition toward death. In his stories, time of stories and
background was diluted on purpose, so he can have profound analysis
of soul. To make the impact more intense, Allen Poe had added death
in the story. For those who had deviated from correct course, death
will be their ending even though they’re more sensible than ordinary
people and easier to loose self-control. Allen Poe had showed
understanding and sympathy for them, but ethics principles will
never vanish, so once they go against ethics and make unforgivab


النص الأصلي

short stories. Different from previous death discussed above, most
victims of death caused by disease are female, for example, female
characters in The Oval Portrait, Berenice, Morella and The Fall of
the House of Usher all die at early ages, which are not simple
embodiment of uncertain destiny or to make people lament through
destruction of beauties. Death caused by disease is of particular
significance if roles played by males are considered.
Allen Poe’s love and worship for females have made females in
his works beautiful and charming. Death caused by disease is widely
different from murder and suicide as disease brings physical damages
and withering of appearance gradually. At a later stage, the
characteristics of beauty held by women are stripped, and the time
beauty dies away is exactly the time death falls. Allen Poe reveals
that loss of love from dominant position is fatal and deprivation of
beauty equals deprivation of life.



  1. Causes of Allen Poe’s Thanatopsis
    The formation of Allen Poe’s thanatopsis is influenced by
    many factors which include both external and internal factors. For
    example, social historical background, cultural perspective,
    knowledge structure, hobbies and interests and life experiences all
    influence his thanatopsis to varying degrees. This chapter shall
    discuss causes of his complicated and changing thanatopsis from
    three main aspects.
    3.1 Cultural Background
    Allen Poe enters academic circles as a literary critic. At that
    time, Washington Irving and Fenimore Cooper enjoyed a high
    reputation, but Allen Poe held a different idea. Most contemporary
    writers, including Irving, had been criticized by Allen Poe. He
    worshiped English literature and believed American excellent works
    were far behind English works. These strident remarks in fact
    revealed his worry for American literature and wish for an equal
    position of American literature as English literature. There’re
    profound origins for his worship for English literature.
    First, he had a long history with UK. When he was 18 years old,
    he had moved with his adoptive father John Poe to England and then
    settled down in London. He had lived in England for five years,
    during which foreign life had impressed him deeply. The novel
    William Wilson is set against a lord’s house which is used as a school,
    and the background information “My earliest recollections of a
    school-life, are connected with a large, rambling, Elizabethan house,
    in a misty-looking village of England, where were a vast number of
    gigantic and gnarled trees, and where all the houses were excessively
    ancient.” shows that Allen Poe remembered life then and his worship
    for English literature began at that time. He had special love for
    works of English writer Samuel Taylor Coleridge and his romantic
    theories spreading to the 19th century. When he returned to America,
    he not only reads lots of English writers’ works, but also concludes
    his own unique explanation through hard work and divided spiritual
    world of Samuel Taylor Coleridge into three categories.
    Besides, as a magazine editor, he wished to have the best
    magazine in America, so he drew upon English magazine. He is
    particularly fond of Fraser's Magazine and Blackwood's Edinburgh
    Magazine, and the later magazine is popular on both sides of the
    Atlantic for its issue of appalling articles, of which Allen Poe had
    mentioned many times in his works. Allen Poe’s first novel
    Metzengerstein is no different from popular gothic novels that time,
    but later he had developed his own styles while inheriting traditional
    gothic novel’s expression of death. His unique style is greatly related
    to his accumulation of knowledge and interests.
    3.2. Knowledge and Interests
    While studying in University of Virginia, Allen Poe had read
    lots of literal works and some books on American history. When he
    studied at West Point, he received military management and learned
    scientific knowledge on algebra, geometry, physics and chemistry as
    the academy attached high importance to education of military theory
    and scientific knowledge, paid less attention to literature and even
    forbade students to keep books of novels and poems. It’s the study
    then that made him interested in science. Allen Poe’s sensitivity had
    helped him easily capture slight changes of human’s mentality, and
    the accumulation of scientific knowledge and cultivation of scientific
    habits had made him show yearn for science and sense, which is of
    particular use even in works with death theme. At the same time, he’s
    a reader with extensive hobbies; besides works of literature and
    philosophy, he’s also interested in science and cryptology and uses
    these knowledge to write whodunits; what’s more, he also learns
    some popular pseudoscience, hypnotism and some other knowledge
    aimed at exploring instincts. He finds that human’s sense is the most
    active and their emotion is the least repressed regarding life and death.
    Therefore, there’re lots of descriptions about mental disorder,
    telepathy and some other abnormal or special thoughts, by doing so
    Allen Poe tries to show that glimmer of human’s inner soul will be
    doubled when they face death.
    3.3. Personal Experiences
    Allen Poe, by extraordinary imagination, has described death in
    great details for us as he has experienced much death in his life. Allen
    Poe was born in Boston in 1819. His father died in 1810, and the next
    year his mother Elizabeth Poe died of tuberculosis. When he was
    three years old, he was adopted by a tobacco supplier John Allen who
    was from Richmond. His adoptive mother passed away in 1829 and
    he left home for Baltimore as he broke up with his adoptive father. In
    Baltimore, he lived with his aunt Maria Ctemm and his sister Virginia
    and his brother Henry Poe. However, Henry died of intemperance
    and tuberculosis in August. Allen Poe adored Henry as Henry had
    rich experiences: he had been a sailor and written poems in
    newspapers. Therefore, his death influenced Allen Poe greatly.
    Allen Poe married Virginia in 1836. His wife and aunt had
    given him great comfort, and they lived a peaceful and happy life
    even though they’re poor. However, good times don’t last long. In
    1842, Virginia’s blood vessels burst when she was singing. Tough her
    life was saved, she had never been as healthy as before and her
    disease repeated constantly, which resulted in Allen Poe’s fluctuation
    between desperation and hope. Then he began intemperance. He was
    found to be insensible on the street of Baltimore on 3, October, 1849,
    and passed away in the hospital three days later. Then he was buried
    carelessly in Westminster Abbey. In over forty years, Edgar Ellen Poe
    had been from Richmond to London, and then back to Richmond. He
    had described death millions of times in his stories. He had to face
    death of so many people, Elizabeth, Dave Poe, Fanny Allen, Henry
    Poe and Virginia, and eventually his own death. In his novel, there’re
    reverence toward death, humorous banter, courage facing death and
    efforts to go beyond death. In fact, he had recorded all his painful and
    happy moments into the story and described those common feelings
    of human beings subtly.

  2. Conclusion
    Leading characters in Allen Poe’s works had a soul-striking
    opposition toward death. In his stories, time of stories and
    background was diluted on purpose, so he can have profound analysis
    of soul. To make the impact more intense, Allen Poe had added death
    in the story. For those who had deviated from correct course, death
    will be their ending even though they’re more sensible than ordinary
    people and easier to loose self-control. Allen Poe had showed
    understanding and sympathy for them, but ethics principles will
    never vanish, so once they go against ethics and make unforgivab

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