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نتيجة التلخيص (12%)

Evaluation of durability of concrete substituted heavyweight waste glass
as fine aggregate
Il Sun Kim a,1
, So Yeong Choi a
, Eun Ik Yang a,⇑
aDepartment of Civil Engineering, Gangneung-Wonju National University, 7, Jukheon-gil, Gangneung-si, Gangwon-do 25457, Republic of Korea
highlights
 Cathode ray tube (CRT) waste glass was recycled as fine aggregate of concrete.
 Durability of concrete containing CRT glass was investigated.
 As the mixing ratio of waste glass increased, durability is better in the concrete.
 This study showed that CRT waste glass can be used as fine aggregate in concrete.
article info
Article history:
Received 12 January 2018
Received in revised form 8 June 2018
Accepted 27 June 2018
Keywords:
Heavyweight waste glass
Durability
Water absorption
Freezing and thawing resistance
Sulfate attack
Chloride ion penetration
abstract
Concrete is the most widely used construction material, and huge amounts of natural resources are
required to manufacture it. With relatively recent rapid industrial development as well as the improve-
ment of people’s living standards, the volume of domestic and industrial waste is increasing, and much of
this waste is not recycled. Cathode ray tube (CRT) waste glass is an industrial waste material that has
been studied by many researchers for use as fine concrete aggregate. As one example of its potential
application, nuclear power plants and radioactive waste disposal sites are often located in areas vulner-
able to attack by chloride and sulfate, and this may compromise the durability of the concrete structure
designed to shield radiation. More durable concrete would therefore be desirable. We studied the dura-
bility of concrete mixed with waste glass through the following approach. Waste CRT glass containing
heavy metals was recycled as fine aggregate for concrete; the durability of the concrete was investigated
by performing freeze-thaw resistance, sulfate attack, and chloride ion penetration measurement. The test
results showed that as the mixing ratio of waste glass increased, the freezing and thawing resistance,
sulfate attack resistance, and chloride ion penetration resistance were all better in the concrete contain-
ing waste glass than in normal concrete. However, the compressive and the flexural strength of the
concrete both decreased due to lower adhesion between cement paste and waste glass. In conclusion,
it was confirmed that concrete substituted with heavyweight waste glass could be used in radiation
shielding structures.
 2018 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
1. Introduction
Concrete is one of the most widely used construction materials,
and it is a fundamental material in nearly all structures. Alternative
aggregates are, however, very much needed because aggregate
shortages abound due to the exhaustion of natural aggregates
and strict environmental restrictions placed on the construction
industry. In addition, with rapid industrial development as well
as the improvement living standard, the amount of domestic and
industrial waste is increasing. Treatment of such types of waste
has become a serious issue, and a globally unified effort is needed
to implement technologies for effective waste recycling and
resource recirculation.
Against this context, several types of industrial waste are cur-
rently being used in the manufacturing of eco-friendly materials,
which can replace existing construction materials. Among the
various types of industrial waste, glass is considered to be the most
suitable substitute as an aggregate due to its physical characteris-
tics and chemical composition [1–3]. Furthermore, previous study
has shown that recycled glass may be suitable for use in a wide
range of applications, including concrete, bricks, and in highway
engineering projects [4–7].
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.06.221
0950-0618/ 2018 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
⇑ Corresponding author.
E-mail addresses: [email protected] (I.S. Kim), [email protected] (E.I. Yang). 1 First author.
Construction and Building Materials 184 (2018) 269–277
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
Construction and Building Materials
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/conbuildmat

In particular, since 2012, when analog TV broadcasting ended,
and systems converted to digital TV broadcasting in South Korea,
a large volume of cathode ray tube (CRT) TVs and monitors were
discarded and replaced with LCD panels. The amount of electronic
waste, including waste CRT glass from CRT TVs and monitors,
increased from 910,000 ea. in 2012 to 970,000 ea., and is currently
projected to increase to about 10 million ea. in 2020 [8,9]. Just as
notable is that most of the old CRT TVs and monitors are not recy-
cled despite the fact that parts, including the CRTs, can be. CRT
glass products are classified into panels and funnels, wherein the
panels may be reused as glass after washing, but the funnels, con-
taining a large number of heavy metals such as iron and lead, are
difficult to treat using conventional recycling technology. Heavy-
weight waste glass has therefore frequently been illegally dumped
or buried in landfills, leading to serious environmental pollution
[10]. As a result, it is important to find effective recycling methods
for heavyweight waste glass that contains heavy metals. One pos-
sible option that has been studied includes applying waste glass as
an alternative concrete aggregate [2,10–21], however, studies
specifically on the durability of concrete are lacking.
Many of the existing studies involve mortar [11,14,21]. Most
studies also used treated waste glass in the form of crushed glass
in which heavy metals were removed [15–19]. Such waste glass
treatment process is very complicated. In South Korea, a study
was conducted to investigate the applicability of heavyweight
waste glass crushed solely by a jaw crusher [10,21]. In this paper,
heavyweight waste glass was simply crushed by jaw crushers,
and not all of the heavy metal in the waste glass was removed,
making it a very simple process.
Heavyweight aggregates can be used in heavyweight concrete,
and most of the concrete used in radiation shielding in nuclear
power plants and radioactive waste disposal involves heavyweight
concrete. Nuclear power plants are mainly located on the coast and
are susceptible to attack by chlorides, while radioactive waste
disposal plants are often located deep underground and are vulner-
able to sulfate attack, so these factors need to be considered. In
addition to heavyweight aggregate, many researchers have studied
the properties and radiation shielding performance of concrete
mixed with lead mine waste, waste marble, recycled aggregate,
electric arc furnace slag, ferrochromium slag, barite, and minerals
[22–30]. Our research confirms that heavyweight waste glass can
be used as a fine aggregate of concrete by previous study [21]
and improve radiation shielding performance.
In summary, the development of alternative resources is
required due to the depletion of natural resources, and efforts to
use industrial wastes as alternative resources are continuing. Much
research has been conducted on waste glass, which is an industrial
waste, as concrete aggregate, and we conducted this study to apply
heavyweight waste glass as an ingredient of radiation shielding
concrete. In previous studies, lead mine waste, barite, and so on
have been used as aggregate in a radiation shielding concrete,
and studies on heavyweight waste glass are insufficient.
Thus, this study was conducted to investigate the durability of
concrete prepared using heavyweight waste glass containing
Fig. 1. Research Framework.
270 I.S. Kim et al. / Construction and Building Materials 184 (2018) 269–277

heavy metals. Freezing and thawing resistance, permeability resis-
tance, sulfate attack, and chloride ion penetration were compared
to quantitatively investigate the effect of heavy waste glass on con-
crete durability. We also examined whether heavyweight waste
glass could be used for concrete shielding structures. An overview
of the research framework is illustrated in Fig. 1.
2. Experimental procedures
2.1. Materials
2.1.1. Cement
In this study, Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) (ASTM C 150 (2007) Type I) [31]
was used in all of the mixtures. The physical and chemical compositions of the
cement are shown in Table 1.
2.1.2. Aggregate
Crushed gravel was used as a coarse aggregate with a maximum size of 20 mm.
The density and absorption ratio of the coarse aggregate was 2.68 g/cm3 and 0.97%,
respectively. River sand was used as a fine aggregate with a maximum size of 5 mm.
The density and absorption ratio of the fine aggregate was 2.60 g/cm3 and 1.01%,
respectively. The material properties of the aggregate are shown in Table 2.
2.1.3. Heavyweight waste glass
The heavyweight waste glass used in this study as an alternative fine aggregate
was collected from waste CRT funnels. The composition of the CRT glass produced
by domestic individual manufacturers is shown in Fig. 2. There was a slight differ-
ence between the manufacturers, but there was no significant difference in the
ingredients. The collected waste glass was crushed using a jaw crusher. Only
crushed waste glass which passed through a 5 mm sieve was used as fine aggregate.
The density of the waste glass was 3.0 g/cm3
. The crushed heavyweight waste glass
is shown in Fig. 3. The particle size distributions of all fine aggregates used this
study are presented in Fig. 4.
2.1.4. Admixture
The admixtures used in this study were an air-entraining agent (A.E.) and a
water-reducing agent (W.R.A.) produced by domestic company J. The water-
reducing agent was polycarbonate-based.
2.1.5. Experimental variables
The water-to-binder ratio (W/B) was 35%, 45%, and 55%, and the heavyweight
waste glass was used as a substitute for fine aggregate at 0%, 50%, and 100%. Test
variables and mix proportions of concrete are listed in Tables 3 and 4.
2.2. Test methods
2.2.1. Preparation of specimens
Concrete specimens were prepared in specified sizes according to the durability
test items. The specimens for the test of the freezing and thawing resistance and
flexural strength were prepared as rectangular columns with a size of 100  100
 400 (mm), while those for the sulfate attack test, the chloride ion penetration
test, compressive strength, and water absorption ratio were prepared as cylinders
with a size of Ø100  200 (mm).
2.2.2. Properties of fresh concrete
To investigate the fresh properties of the concrete, slump value and air content
were measured. The slump and air content tests were executed in accordance with
ASTM C 143 (2010) [32] and ASTM C 231 (2003) [33], respectively.
2.2.3. Properties of hardened concrete
Compressive and flexural strength tests were carried out at the curing ages of 7,
28, and 91 days. The compressive strength tests were executed in accordance with
ASTM C 39 (2014) [34]. The flexural strength value was measured in accordance
with ASTM C 78 (2002) [35].
Table 1
Physical and chemical composition of cement.
Chemical composition (%)
SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 Cao MgO SO3 LOI
21.36 5.03 3.31 63.18 2.89 2.30 1.40
Physical properties
Specific gravity Blaine (cm2
/g) Initial setting time (min) Final setting time (h) Compressive strength (MPa)
3 Days 7 Days 28 days
3.15 3750 255 6:30 34 43 53
Table 2
Material properties of aggregate.
Type Density (g/cm3
) Absorption (%) F.M.
Fine 2.60 1.01 2.48
Coarse 2.68 0.97 7.01
Waste glass 3.00 0.00 3.34
S-LCD S-CRT L-LCD L-CRT
0
20
40
60
80
Concentration (%)
Fe Pb Cr
Si O etc
Fig. 2. Composition of waste glass.
Fig. 3. Heavyweight waste glass.
I.S. Kim et al. / Construction and Building Materials 184 (2018) 269–277 271

To investigate the water absorption ratio of the concrete mixed the waste glass,
the absorption ratio of the concrete was measured according to ASTM C 642 (2013)
[36].
To evaluate the durability soundness, as it depended on the freezing and thaw-
ing of the concrete, the specified specimens were a curing age of 14 days. Then, a
freezing and thawing test was performed in accordance with ASTM C 666 (Method
B) (2015) [37]. The weight and the relative dynamic modulus of elasticity were
measured every 30 cycles.
To investigate the resistance of the concrete to sulfate attack, a test was
performed in accordance with JSTM C 7401 (1999) [38]. After 28 days of water-
curing following demolding, specimens were dipped in a 10% sodium sulfate solu-
tion at the curing ages of 28, 56, and 91 days. Then, the compressive strength and
the weight change ratio were measured. For evaluation, the results were compared
with those for specimens water-cured for the same periods.
Referring to the electrical accelerated migration test suggested by Tang and
Nilsson (ASTM C 1202 (2012)) [39], a chloride ion penetration test was performed
by applying a voltage of 30 V for eight hours with a 0.3 M NaOH solution as a pos-
itive electrode (+) and a 3% NaCl solution as a negative electrode (). The specimens
were prepared by cutting a cylindrical specimen Ø100  200 (mm) to the size of
0.1 1 10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Heavyweight waste glass
River sand
Percent of passing by weight (%)
Regulation
Seive size (mm)
Fig. 4. Grading curve of fine aggregate.
Table 3
Experimental variables.
Conditions Variables
W/B (%) 35, 45, 55
Heavyweight waste glass
substitution ratio (%)
0, 50, 100
Specimen size (mm) Ø100  200 (Compressive strength)
Ø100  200 (Water absorption ratio)
Ø100  200 (Sulfate attack)
Ø100  50 (Chloride ion penetration)
100  100  400 (Flexural strength)
100  100  400 (Freeze-thaw resistance)
Curing condition Water curing (20 ± 3 C)
Curing days 7, 28, 91
Table 4
Mix proportion of concrete.
Type W/B (%) S/a (%) Content of H.G (%) Unit weight (kg/m3
) A.E (C  %) W.R.A (C  %)
W C S G H.G
35–0 35 41 0 167 477 673 999 0 0.06 0.7
35–50 50 337 388
35–100 100 0 777
45–0 45 43 0 170 378 738 1008 0 0.05 0.5
45–50 50 369 426
45–100 100 0 851
55–0 55 45 0 173 315 792 998 0 0.01 0.4
55–50 50 396 457
55–100 100 0 914
H.G: Heavyweight waste glass, A.E: Air-entraining agent, W.R.A: Water reducing agent.
35-0 35-50 35-100 45-0 45-50 45-100 55-0 55-50 55-100
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
Slump (mm)
Fig. 5. Results of slump test.
Table 5
Increment ratio of slump value.
Type Slump (mm) Increment slump (mm) Increment ratio (%)
35–0 105 – –
35–50 205 100 95.2
35–100 300 195 185.7
45–0 100 – –
45–50 155 55 55.0
45–100 215 115 115.0
55–0 130 – –
55–50 180 50 38.5
55–100 190 60 46.2
35-0 35-50 35-100 45-0 45-50 45-100 55-0 55-50 55-100
0
2
4
6
8
Air content (%)
Fig. 6. Results of air content.
272 I.S. Kim et al. / Construction and Building Materials 184 (2018) 269–277

Ø100  50 (mm). The test was performed at the ages of 28 and 91 days in water-
curing. The chloride penetration depth was measured by a colorimetric method.
After splitting the specimen, a 0.1 N AgNO3 solution was sprayed onto the speci-
men. Then, the penetration depth was measured and the diffusion coefficient was
calculated. The penetration depth was calculated as an average of three specimens.
3. Results and discussion
3.1. Slump value and air content
Fig. 5 shows the results of the concrete slump value depending
on the W/B ratio and the waste glass substitution ratio. The slump
of the concrete increased as the waste glass substitution ratio
increased, regardless of the W/B ratio, and the increment of the
slump decreased as the W/B ratio increased. As shown in Table 5,
in the case of 100% substitute of waste glass, the slump increment
rate of W/B 35% was 185%, but increased the rate of W/B 55% was
46%. Substitution of waste glass could increase slump, especially at
low W/B.
In contrast, previous studies conducted by substituting low-
density waste glass for fine aggregates showed that slump
decreased as the waste glass substitution ratio increased
[2,4,13,40]. Such a tendency was considered to be related to the
density of the waste glass. In the previous aforementioned studies,
the density of the waste glass used was similar to or lower than
that of sand. However, the density of the waste glass used in this
study and in another previous study conducted by mixing CRT
waste glass was as high as about 3.0 g/cm3 [19]. Therefore, the high
density of waste glass used as fine aggregate may have increased
the slump, and the physical properties of the waste glass including
smooth surface and low water absorption may also have affected
the slump of the concrete [19].
In addition, in this study, an identical amount of admixture was
added to both the concrete containing no waste glass and that con-
taining waste glass. Therefore, the specified slump can be could by
using a proper amount of admixture in preparing the high-density
waste glass concrete.
Fig. 6 shows the air content depending on the waste glass sub-
stitution ratio and the W/B ratio. As the waste glass substitution
ratio increased, air content increased, but only slightly. The range
of the air content was from 5.1% to 5.6%, indicating that the air con-
tent was not significantly dependent on the W/B ratio or on the
waste glass substitution ratio.
3.2. Compressive strength and flexural strength
Fig. 7 show the results of the compressive strength test with the
concrete containing waste glass. The results show that the com-
pressive strength decreased as the waste glass substitution ratio
increased. The smooth surface of the waste glass may hinder the
adhesion to the cement paste, reducing the compressive strength.
Previous studies involving waste glass in cement showed similar
results [2,4,15,19,20,40].
Fig. 8 shows the flexural strength of the concrete. Under all con-
ditions, the flexural strength decreased as the waste glass substitu-
tion ratio increased, as also shown by previous studies [2,4]. This is
why the relatively smooth surface of the waste glass has a lower
adhesion to cement paste than it does to sand. Tables 6 and 7 sum-
marize the test results and reduction ratio of compressive and
flexural strength. According to test results, when the 100% fine
aggregate is substituted by waste glass, the average reduction
ratio of compressive and flexural strength was 20% and 15%,
respectively.
35-0 35-50 35-100 45-0 45-50 45-100 55-0 55-50 55-100
0
10
20
30
40
50
Compressive strength (MPa)
7days 28days 91days
Fig. 7. Compressive strength.
35-0 35-50 35-100 45-0 45-50 45-100 55-0 55-50 55-100
0
2
4
6
8
10
Flexural strength (MPa)
7days 28days 91days
Fig. 8. Flexural strength.
Table 6
Reduction ratio of compressive strength.
Type 7 days 28 days 91 days
Compressive Strength (MPa) Reduction Ratio (%) Compressive
Strength (MPa)
Reduction Ratio (%) Compressive
Strength (MPa)
Reduction Ratio (%)
35–0 28.8 – 31.9 – 33.4 –
35–50 27.4 4.8 29.5 7.5 31.6 5.4
35–100 24.6 14.7 27.1 15.1 27.1 18.9
45–0 22.6 – 26.7 – 28.2 –
45–50 21.9 3.1 23.5 11.8 26.9 4.6
45–100 17.6 22.1 19.7 26.0 20.0 29.1
55–0 21.1 – 23.2 – 23.9 –
55–50 17.9 15.0 21.6 6.7 22.2 7.0
55–100 17.7 16.1 19.6 15.5 19.1 19.8
I.S. Kim et al. / Construction and Building Materials 184 (2018) 269–277 273

Fig. 9 shows the relationship between the root of compressive
strength and the flexural strength of the concretes with heavy-
weight waste glass aggregates [30,41]. The relationship between
the root of compressive strength and the flexural strength shows
a linear correlation of 0.90 or more. Flexural strength was rated
at about 74.5–98.7% of the root of compressive strength.
Fig. 10 shows compressive and flexural strength compared with
design codes. In general, the flexural strength is in the range of 1/5
to 1/7 of the compressive strength. Therefore, in many countries, a
prediction model of flexural strength using compressive strength is
proposed. In this study, test results are compared with the
predicted model results of KCI, CEB-FIP, ACI 363, and JSCE model
codes [42–45]. As a result of the comparison, the test results were
mainly placed between the ACI model and the KCI model. Although
the heavyweight waste glass is used as fine aggregate, it is shown
that the flexural strength of concrete can be anticipated from com-
pressive strength by the modified model code.
3.3. Freezing and thawing resistance
Figs. 11 and 12 show the results of the freezing and thawing
resistance tests of the concrete. The relative dynamic modulus of
Table 7
Reduction ratio of flexural strength.
Type 7 days 28 days 91 days
Flexural Strength (MPa) Reduction Ratio (%) Flexural Strength (MPa) Reduction Ratio (%) Flexural Strength (MPa) Reduction Ratio (%)
35–0 5.3 – 5.5 – 5.6 –
35–50 4.7 11.9 5.3 3.5 5.8 3.7
35–100 3.9 25.7 4.7 15.3 5.2 8.2
45–0 4.0 – 4.3 – 5.0 –
45–50 3.8 4.7 3.9 8.4 4.6 8.7
45–100 3.5 13.7 3.7 13.8 4.0 20.5
55–0 3.5 – 3.9 – 4.3 –
55–50 3.3 6.1 3.8 4.3 4.4 1.6
55–100 3.2 9.2 3.3 16.0 3.8 11.1
4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
Y=1.5485X + 3.3826
R2
=0.9013
Flexural Strength (MPa)
Root of compressive Strength (MPa)
Fig. 9. The relationship between compressive strength and flexural strength.
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
2
4
6
8
10
KCI CEB ACI 363 JSCE
Flexural strength (MPa)
Compressive strength (MPa)
Fig. 10. The relationship between compressive & flexural strength and design
codes.
0 60 120 180 240 300
60
80
100
120
Cycle
Relative dynamic modulus of elasticity (%)
35-0 35-50 35-100
45-0 45-50 45-100
55-0 55-50 55-100
Fig. 11. Relative dynamic modulus of elasticity.
0 60 120 180 240 300
80
90
100
110
Cycle
Weight Change Ratio (%)
35-0 35-50 35-100
45-0 45-50 45-100
55-0 55-50 55-100
Fig. 12. Weight change ratio.
274 I.S. Kim et al. / Construction and Building Materials 184 (2018) 269–277

elasticity of the concrete in a freezing and thawing resistance test
of 300 cycles is shown in Fig. 11. The test results show that the
relative dynamic modulus of elasticity of the concrete was
decreased by the freezing and thawing until 300 cycles under all
mixing conditions, but the durability index remained good, ranging
from 83 to 96. In other words, waste glass did not significantly
affect the freezing and thawing resistance of the concrete. More
specifically, the W/B ratio of 0.35 exhibited a durability index of
over about 90% under mixed conditions. It can be seen that the
effect of freezing and thawing on W/B ratio is larger than that of
waste glass. Since waste glass is more impervious than sand and
has fewer pores, it can be considered that it is less affected by
freezing and thawing than sand. The changes of the weights of
the concrete measured at every 30th are were shown in Fig. 12.
Under all conditions, concrete had no significant weight change
before or after the freezing and thawing and showed excellent
durability.
3.4. Water absorption ratio
The water absorption ratio of the concrete was measured to
investigate the effect of waste glass substitution on permeability
resistance. As shown in Fig. 13, the waste absorption ratio
increased as the W/B ratio increased, but decreased as the waste
glass substitution ratio increased. Waste glass decreased the water
absorption ratio, probably because the water absorption ratio of
the waste glass is lower than that of sand [46]. In addition, since
glass is impermeable, it might contain less moisture than sand.
As shown in Table 8, as the W/B ratio and the substitution ratio
increased, the water absorption reduction ratio gradually
increased. That is, when the waste glass is used as an ingredient
in concrete, permeability resistance is improved.
3.5. Sulfate attack
To investigate the sulfate attack resistance of the concrete, the
ratio of compressive strength and weight change were measured,
with results shown in Figs. 14 and 15, respectively. The compres-
sive strength ratio refers to the ratio of the compressive strength
of the concrete dipped in a sulfate solution to that of the concrete
35-0 35-50 35-100 45-0 45-50 45-100 55-0 55-50 55-100
0
2
4
6
8
10
Water absorption (%)
Fig. 13. Water absorption ratio.
Table 8
Water absorption and reduction ratio.
Type Water absorption ratio (%) Reduction Ratio (%)
35–0 6.84 –
35–50 6.39 6.6
35–100 6.34 7.3
45–0 7.11 –
45–50 6.76 4.9
45–100 6.43 9.6
55–0 7.37 –
55–50 6.86 6.9
55–100 6.31 14.4
0.88 0.91 0.93
0.84
0.96 0.99
0.86
0.97 0.95
35-0 35-50 35-100 45-0 45-50 45-100 55-0 55-50 55-100
35-0 35-50 35-100 45-0 45-50 45-100 55-0 55-50 55-100
35-0 35-50 35-100 45-0 45-50 45-100 55-0 55-50 55-100
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
Compressive Strength ratio
(a) Curing 28 days
0.91 0.92 0.96 0.95 0.94
1.02
0.85
0.96 0.95
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
Compressive Strength ratio
(b) Curing 56 days
0.9 0.91 0.9 0.94 0.93 0.92 0.94 0.98 0.99
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
Compressive Strength ratio
(c) Curing 91 days
Fig. 14. Results of compressive strength ratio.
I.S. Kim et al. / Construction and Building Materials 184 (2018) 269–277 275

cured in water. A higher compressive strength ratio means a higher
resistance to sulfate attack.
As shown in Fig. 14, comparison of the compressive strength
showed that the decrease of the compressive strength was lower
in the concrete containing waste glass than in the concrete con-
taining no waste glass. This trend of compressive strength decrease
was found in all of the mixing conditions; as the age increased, the
difference gradually decreased. As waste glass is relatively denser
than sand, the resistance to sulfate increased as the waste glass
substitution increased. That is, the substitution of waste glass
may have improved the resistance to sulfate attack.
Fig. 15 shows the weight change ratio, depending on the W/B
ratio, and the waste glass substitution ratio, of the concrete dipped
in a 10% sodium sulfate solution for curing ages of 28, 56, and 91
days. The weight change ratio of the concrete depending on the
dipping period showed that the weight was not significantly chan-
ged by the sulfate attack in all of the mixing conditions. This indi-
cates that concrete containing waste glass has a high resistance to
sulfate, as was also shown by previous studies [2,40].
3.6. Chloride ion penetration
The chloride ion penetration resistance of the concrete, depend-
ing on the W/B ratio and the waste glass substitution ratio, is
shown in Figs. 16 and 17, respectively. As Fig. 16 shows, the chlo-
ride ion penetration depth decreased as the waste glass substitu-
tion ratio increased in all of the mixing conditions. The chloride
ion resistance was further improved by mixing the waste glass at
a higher W/B ratio. As shown in Table 9, in the case of 50% substi-
tution of waste glass, the penetration depth reduction was an aver-
age of 20%, and in the case of 100% substitution of waste glass, the
penetration depth reduction was an average of 36% at a curing of
91 days. The use of waste glass as a substitute for sand can there-
fore improve chloride penetration resistance [2,13,40].
As shown in Fig. 17, the diffusion coefficient decreased as the
waste glass substitution ratio increased at a constant W/B ratio.
The results also showed that the diffusion coefficient greatly
decreased as the waste glass substitution ratio increased, espe-
cially at a high W/B ratio, indicating that the chloride ion penetra-
tion resistance was effectively improved. This may have been
because of the water impermeability of the waste glass, as well
as it having a porosity lower than that of sand. The substitution
of the waste glass improved the chloride ion penetration resistance
by making the concrete microstructure denser.
4. Conclusions
In this study we evaluated the durability of concrete prepared
by substituting heavyweight waste glass for fine aggregates. The
following conclusions were obtained from this study.
1) Slump increased as the waste glass substitution ratio
increased, but the increment decreased as the W/B ratio
increased. Air content slightly increased as the waste glass
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
90
95
100
105
110
Weeks
Weight Change Ratio (%)
35-0 35-50 35-100
45-0 45-50 45-100
55-0 55-50 55-100
Fig. 15. Weight change ratio.
35-0 35-50 35-100 45-0 45-50 45-100 55-0 55-50 55-100
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
Depth of Penetration (mm)
Age 28 days
Age 90 days
Fig. 16. Depth of penetration.
20 40 60 80 100
0
10
20
30
Diffusion coefficient (x10-12
m2/sec)
Age of days
35-0 35-50 35-100
45-0 45-50 45-100
55-0 55-50 55-100
Fig. 17. Diffusion coefficient.
Table 9
Reduction ratio of chloride penetration depth.
Type Curing 28 days Curing 91 days
Depth of
penetration (mm)
Reduction
ratio (%)
Depth of
penetration (mm)
Reduction
ratio (%)
35–0 9.2 – 8.5 –
35–50 7.4 19.6 6.9 18.8
35–100 6.3 31.5 5.5 35.3
45–0 12.3 – 8.7 –
45–50 8.4 31.7 6.7 23.0
45–100 8.9 27.6 5.9 32.2
55–0 14.8 – 11.2 –
55–50 12.8 13.5 9.1 18.8
55–100 10.4 29.7 6.6 41.1
276 I.S. Kim et al. / Construction and Building Materials 184 (2018) 269–277

substitution ratio increased, but the increase was not signif-
icantly dependent on the W/B ratio or on the waste glass
substitution ratio.
2) Compressive and flexural strength of the concrete decreased
as the W/B ratio and the waste glass substitution ratio
increased. The decrease of the strength may have been due
to decreased adhesion between the waste glass surface and
the cement hydrates.
3) The freezing and thawing resistance test showed that the
weight of the concrete did not significantly change due to
freezing and thawing. The ratio of the relative dynamic mod-
ulus of elasticity was higher than 80% in all of the mixing
conditions, indicating that concrete containing heavyweight
glass waste had good freeze–thaw resistance.
4) The permeability resistance of the concrete increased as the
waste glass substitution ratio increased, because of the low
water absorption ratio of the waste glass. Additionally, the
heavyweight waste glass content may have improved the
sulfate attack resistance of the concrete. Chloride ion pene-
tration resistance is significantly improved when heavy-
weight waste glass is used as fine aggregate.
It is confirmed that concrete mixes with heavyweight waste
glass show excellent durability, thus can be used in radiation
shielding structures. The low compressive and flexural strength
can be increased by using low W/B ratio and low air content. In
subsequent studies, we will evaluate the possibility of concrete
containing heavyweight waste glass through a direct shielding per-
formance verification test.
Conflict of interest
None.
Acknowledgments
This work was supported by the Korea Institute of Energy Tech-
nology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) and the Ministry of Trade,
Industry & Energy (MOTIE) of the Republic of Korea
(No.20171520101680).
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I.S. Kim et al. / Construction and Building Materials 184 (2018) 269–277 277
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النص الأصلي

Evaluation of durability of concrete substituted heavyweight waste glass
as fine aggregate
Il Sun Kim a,1
, So Yeong Choi a
, Eun Ik Yang a,⇑
aDepartment of Civil Engineering, Gangneung-Wonju National University, 7, Jukheon-gil, Gangneung-si, Gangwon-do 25457, Republic of Korea
highlights
 Cathode ray tube (CRT) waste glass was recycled as fine aggregate of concrete.
 Durability of concrete containing CRT glass was investigated.
 As the mixing ratio of waste glass increased, durability is better in the concrete.
 This study showed that CRT waste glass can be used as fine aggregate in concrete.
article info
Article history:
Received 12 January 2018
Received in revised form 8 June 2018
Accepted 27 June 2018
Keywords:
Heavyweight waste glass
Durability
Water absorption
Freezing and thawing resistance
Sulfate attack
Chloride ion penetration
abstract
Concrete is the most widely used construction material, and huge amounts of natural resources are
required to manufacture it. With relatively recent rapid industrial development as well as the improve-
ment of people’s living standards, the volume of domestic and industrial waste is increasing, and much of
this waste is not recycled. Cathode ray tube (CRT) waste glass is an industrial waste material that has
been studied by many researchers for use as fine concrete aggregate. As one example of its potential
application, nuclear power plants and radioactive waste disposal sites are often located in areas vulner-
able to attack by chloride and sulfate, and this may compromise the durability of the concrete structure
designed to shield radiation. More durable concrete would therefore be desirable. We studied the dura-
bility of concrete mixed with waste glass through the following approach. Waste CRT glass containing
heavy metals was recycled as fine aggregate for concrete; the durability of the concrete was investigated
by performing freeze-thaw resistance, sulfate attack, and chloride ion penetration measurement. The test
results showed that as the mixing ratio of waste glass increased, the freezing and thawing resistance,
sulfate attack resistance, and chloride ion penetration resistance were all better in the concrete contain-
ing waste glass than in normal concrete. However, the compressive and the flexural strength of the
concrete both decreased due to lower adhesion between cement paste and waste glass. In conclusion,
it was confirmed that concrete substituted with heavyweight waste glass could be used in radiation
shielding structures.
 2018 Published by Elsevier Ltd.



  1. Introduction
    Concrete is one of the most widely used construction materials,
    and it is a fundamental material in nearly all structures. Alternative
    aggregates are, however, very much needed because aggregate
    shortages abound due to the exhaustion of natural aggregates
    and strict environmental restrictions placed on the construction
    industry. In addition, with rapid industrial development as well
    as the improvement living standard, the amount of domestic and
    industrial waste is increasing. Treatment of such types of waste
    has become a serious issue, and a globally unified effort is needed
    to implement technologies for effective waste recycling and
    resource recirculation.
    Against this context, several types of industrial waste are cur-
    rently being used in the manufacturing of eco-friendly materials,
    which can replace existing construction materials. Among the
    various types of industrial waste, glass is considered to be the most
    suitable substitute as an aggregate due to its physical characteris-
    tics and chemical composition [1–3]. Furthermore, previous study
    has shown that recycled glass may be suitable for use in a wide
    range of applications, including concrete, bricks, and in highway
    engineering projects [4–7].
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.06.221
    0950-0618/ 2018 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    ⇑ Corresponding author.
    E-mail addresses: [email protected] (I.S. Kim), [email protected] (E.I. Yang). 1 First author.
    Construction and Building Materials 184 (2018) 269–277
    Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
    Construction and Building Materials
    journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/conbuildmat


In particular, since 2012, when analog TV broadcasting ended,
and systems converted to digital TV broadcasting in South Korea,
a large volume of cathode ray tube (CRT) TVs and monitors were
discarded and replaced with LCD panels. The amount of electronic
waste, including waste CRT glass from CRT TVs and monitors,
increased from 910,000 ea. in 2012 to 970,000 ea., and is currently
projected to increase to about 10 million ea. in 2020 [8,9]. Just as
notable is that most of the old CRT TVs and monitors are not recy-
cled despite the fact that parts, including the CRTs, can be. CRT
glass products are classified into panels and funnels, wherein the
panels may be reused as glass after washing, but the funnels, con-
taining a large number of heavy metals such as iron and lead, are
difficult to treat using conventional recycling technology. Heavy-
weight waste glass has therefore frequently been illegally dumped
or buried in landfills, leading to serious environmental pollution
[10]. As a result, it is important to find effective recycling methods
for heavyweight waste glass that contains heavy metals. One pos-
sible option that has been studied includes applying waste glass as
an alternative concrete aggregate [2,10–21], however, studies
specifically on the durability of concrete are lacking.
Many of the existing studies involve mortar [11,14,21]. Most
studies also used treated waste glass in the form of crushed glass
in which heavy metals were removed [15–19]. Such waste glass
treatment process is very complicated. In South Korea, a study
was conducted to investigate the applicability of heavyweight
waste glass crushed solely by a jaw crusher [10,21]. In this paper,
heavyweight waste glass was simply crushed by jaw crushers,
and not all of the heavy metal in the waste glass was removed,
making it a very simple process.
Heavyweight aggregates can be used in heavyweight concrete,
and most of the concrete used in radiation shielding in nuclear
power plants and radioactive waste disposal involves heavyweight
concrete. Nuclear power plants are mainly located on the coast and
are susceptible to attack by chlorides, while radioactive waste
disposal plants are often located deep underground and are vulner-
able to sulfate attack, so these factors need to be considered. In
addition to heavyweight aggregate, many researchers have studied
the properties and radiation shielding performance of concrete
mixed with lead mine waste, waste marble, recycled aggregate,
electric arc furnace slag, ferrochromium slag, barite, and minerals
[22–30]. Our research confirms that heavyweight waste glass can
be used as a fine aggregate of concrete by previous study [21]
and improve radiation shielding performance.
In summary, the development of alternative resources is
required due to the depletion of natural resources, and efforts to
use industrial wastes as alternative resources are continuing. Much
research has been conducted on waste glass, which is an industrial
waste, as concrete aggregate, and we conducted this study to apply
heavyweight waste glass as an ingredient of radiation shielding
concrete. In previous studies, lead mine waste, barite, and so on
have been used as aggregate in a radiation shielding concrete,
and studies on heavyweight waste glass are insufficient.
Thus, this study was conducted to investigate the durability of
concrete prepared using heavyweight waste glass containing
Fig. 1. Research Framework.
270 I.S. Kim et al. / Construction and Building Materials 184 (2018) 269–277


heavy metals. Freezing and thawing resistance, permeability resis-
tance, sulfate attack, and chloride ion penetration were compared
to quantitatively investigate the effect of heavy waste glass on con-
crete durability. We also examined whether heavyweight waste
glass could be used for concrete shielding structures. An overview
of the research framework is illustrated in Fig. 1.
2. Experimental procedures
2.1. Materials
2.1.1. Cement
In this study, Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) (ASTM C 150 (2007) Type I) [31]
was used in all of the mixtures. The physical and chemical compositions of the
cement are shown in Table 1.
2.1.2. Aggregate
Crushed gravel was used as a coarse aggregate with a maximum size of 20 mm.
The density and absorption ratio of the coarse aggregate was 2.68 g/cm3 and 0.97%,
respectively. River sand was used as a fine aggregate with a maximum size of 5 mm.
The density and absorption ratio of the fine aggregate was 2.60 g/cm3 and 1.01%,
respectively. The material properties of the aggregate are shown in Table 2.
2.1.3. Heavyweight waste glass
The heavyweight waste glass used in this study as an alternative fine aggregate
was collected from waste CRT funnels. The composition of the CRT glass produced
by domestic individual manufacturers is shown in Fig. 2. There was a slight differ-
ence between the manufacturers, but there was no significant difference in the
ingredients. The collected waste glass was crushed using a jaw crusher. Only
crushed waste glass which passed through a 5 mm sieve was used as fine aggregate.
The density of the waste glass was 3.0 g/cm3
. The crushed heavyweight waste glass
is shown in Fig. 3. The particle size distributions of all fine aggregates used this
study are presented in Fig. 4.
2.1.4. Admixture
The admixtures used in this study were an air-entraining agent (A.E.) and a
water-reducing agent (W.R.A.) produced by domestic company J. The water-
reducing agent was polycarbonate-based.
2.1.5. Experimental variables
The water-to-binder ratio (W/B) was 35%, 45%, and 55%, and the heavyweight
waste glass was used as a substitute for fine aggregate at 0%, 50%, and 100%. Test
variables and mix proportions of concrete are listed in Tables 3 and 4.
2.2. Test methods
2.2.1. Preparation of specimens
Concrete specimens were prepared in specified sizes according to the durability
test items. The specimens for the test of the freezing and thawing resistance and
flexural strength were prepared as rectangular columns with a size of 100  100
 400 (mm), while those for the sulfate attack test, the chloride ion penetration
test, compressive strength, and water absorption ratio were prepared as cylinders
with a size of Ø100  200 (mm).
2.2.2. Properties of fresh concrete
To investigate the fresh properties of the concrete, slump value and air content
were measured. The slump and air content tests were executed in accordance with
ASTM C 143 (2010) [32] and ASTM C 231 (2003) [33], respectively.
2.2.3. Properties of hardened concrete
Compressive and flexural strength tests were carried out at the curing ages of 7,
28, and 91 days. The compressive strength tests were executed in accordance with
ASTM C 39 (2014) [34]. The flexural strength value was measured in accordance
with ASTM C 78 (2002) [35].
Table 1
Physical and chemical composition of cement.
Chemical composition (%)
SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 Cao MgO SO3 LOI
21.36 5.03 3.31 63.18 2.89 2.30 1.40
Physical properties
Specific gravity Blaine (cm2
/g) Initial setting time (min) Final setting time (h) Compressive strength (MPa)
3 Days 7 Days 28 days
3.15 3750 255 6:30 34 43 53
Table 2
Material properties of aggregate.
Type Density (g/cm3
) Absorption (%) F.M.
Fine 2.60 1.01 2.48
Coarse 2.68 0.97 7.01
Waste glass 3.00 0.00 3.34
S-LCD S-CRT L-LCD L-CRT
0
20
40
60
80
Concentration (%)
Fe Pb Cr
Si O etc
Fig. 2. Composition of waste glass.
Fig. 3. Heavyweight waste glass.
I.S. Kim et al. / Construction and Building Materials 184 (2018) 269–277 271


To investigate the water absorption ratio of the concrete mixed the waste glass,
the absorption ratio of the concrete was measured according to ASTM C 642 (2013)
[36].
To evaluate the durability soundness, as it depended on the freezing and thaw-
ing of the concrete, the specified specimens were a curing age of 14 days. Then, a
freezing and thawing test was performed in accordance with ASTM C 666 (Method
B) (2015) [37]. The weight and the relative dynamic modulus of elasticity were
measured every 30 cycles.
To investigate the resistance of the concrete to sulfate attack, a test was
performed in accordance with JSTM C 7401 (1999) [38]. After 28 days of water-
curing following demolding, specimens were dipped in a 10% sodium sulfate solu-
tion at the curing ages of 28, 56, and 91 days. Then, the compressive strength and
the weight change ratio were measured. For evaluation, the results were compared
with those for specimens water-cured for the same periods.
Referring to the electrical accelerated migration test suggested by Tang and
Nilsson (ASTM C 1202 (2012)) [39], a chloride ion penetration test was performed
by applying a voltage of 30 V for eight hours with a 0.3 M NaOH solution as a pos-
itive electrode (+) and a 3% NaCl solution as a negative electrode (). The specimens
were prepared by cutting a cylindrical specimen Ø100  200 (mm) to the size of
0.1 1 10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Heavyweight waste glass
River sand
Percent of passing by weight (%)
Regulation
Seive size (mm)
Fig. 4. Grading curve of fine aggregate.
Table 3
Experimental variables.
Conditions Variables
W/B (%) 35, 45, 55
Heavyweight waste glass
substitution ratio (%)
0, 50, 100
Specimen size (mm) Ø100  200 (Compressive strength)
Ø100  200 (Water absorption ratio)
Ø100  200 (Sulfate attack)
Ø100  50 (Chloride ion penetration)
100  100  400 (Flexural strength)
100  100  400 (Freeze-thaw resistance)
Curing condition Water curing (20 ± 3 C)
Curing days 7, 28, 91
Table 4
Mix proportion of concrete.
Type W/B (%) S/a (%) Content of H.G (%) Unit weight (kg/m3
) A.E (C  %) W.R.A (C  %)
W C S G H.G
35–0 35 41 0 167 477 673 999 0 0.06 0.7
35–50 50 337 388
35–100 100 0 777
45–0 45 43 0 170 378 738 1008 0 0.05 0.5
45–50 50 369 426
45–100 100 0 851
55–0 55 45 0 173 315 792 998 0 0.01 0.4
55–50 50 396 457
55–100 100 0 914
H.G: Heavyweight waste glass, A.E: Air-entraining agent, W.R.A: Water reducing agent.
35-0 35-50 35-100 45-0 45-50 45-100 55-0 55-50 55-100
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
Slump (mm)
Fig. 5. Results of slump test.
Table 5
Increment ratio of slump value.
Type Slump (mm) Increment slump (mm) Increment ratio (%)
35–0 105 – –
35–50 205 100 95.2
35–100 300 195 185.7
45–0 100 – –
45–50 155 55 55.0
45–100 215 115 115.0
55–0 130 – –
55–50 180 50 38.5
55–100 190 60 46.2
35-0 35-50 35-100 45-0 45-50 45-100 55-0 55-50 55-100
0
2
4
6
8
Air content (%)
Fig. 6. Results of air content.
272 I.S. Kim et al. / Construction and Building Materials 184 (2018) 269–277


Ø100  50 (mm). The test was performed at the ages of 28 and 91 days in water-
curing. The chloride penetration depth was measured by a colorimetric method.
After splitting the specimen, a 0.1 N AgNO3 solution was sprayed onto the speci-
men. Then, the penetration depth was measured and the diffusion coefficient was
calculated. The penetration depth was calculated as an average of three specimens.
3. Results and discussion
3.1. Slump value and air content
Fig. 5 shows the results of the concrete slump value depending
on the W/B ratio and the waste glass substitution ratio. The slump
of the concrete increased as the waste glass substitution ratio
increased, regardless of the W/B ratio, and the increment of the
slump decreased as the W/B ratio increased. As shown in Table 5,
in the case of 100% substitute of waste glass, the slump increment
rate of W/B 35% was 185%, but increased the rate of W/B 55% was
46%. Substitution of waste glass could increase slump, especially at
low W/B.
In contrast, previous studies conducted by substituting low-
density waste glass for fine aggregates showed that slump
decreased as the waste glass substitution ratio increased
[2,4,13,40]. Such a tendency was considered to be related to the
density of the waste glass. In the previous aforementioned studies,
the density of the waste glass used was similar to or lower than
that of sand. However, the density of the waste glass used in this
study and in another previous study conducted by mixing CRT
waste glass was as high as about 3.0 g/cm3 [19]. Therefore, the high
density of waste glass used as fine aggregate may have increased
the slump, and the physical properties of the waste glass including
smooth surface and low water absorption may also have affected
the slump of the concrete [19].
In addition, in this study, an identical amount of admixture was
added to both the concrete containing no waste glass and that con-
taining waste glass. Therefore, the specified slump can be could by
using a proper amount of admixture in preparing the high-density
waste glass concrete.
Fig. 6 shows the air content depending on the waste glass sub-
stitution ratio and the W/B ratio. As the waste glass substitution
ratio increased, air content increased, but only slightly. The range
of the air content was from 5.1% to 5.6%, indicating that the air con-
tent was not significantly dependent on the W/B ratio or on the
waste glass substitution ratio.
3.2. Compressive strength and flexural strength
Fig. 7 show the results of the compressive strength test with the
concrete containing waste glass. The results show that the com-
pressive strength decreased as the waste glass substitution ratio
increased. The smooth surface of the waste glass may hinder the
adhesion to the cement paste, reducing the compressive strength.
Previous studies involving waste glass in cement showed similar
results [2,4,15,19,20,40].
Fig. 8 shows the flexural strength of the concrete. Under all con-
ditions, the flexural strength decreased as the waste glass substitu-
tion ratio increased, as also shown by previous studies [2,4]. This is
why the relatively smooth surface of the waste glass has a lower
adhesion to cement paste than it does to sand. Tables 6 and 7 sum-
marize the test results and reduction ratio of compressive and
flexural strength. According to test results, when the 100% fine
aggregate is substituted by waste glass, the average reduction
ratio of compressive and flexural strength was 20% and 15%,
respectively.
35-0 35-50 35-100 45-0 45-50 45-100 55-0 55-50 55-100
0
10
20
30
40
50
Compressive strength (MPa)
7days 28days 91days
Fig. 7. Compressive strength.
35-0 35-50 35-100 45-0 45-50 45-100 55-0 55-50 55-100
0
2
4
6
8
10
Flexural strength (MPa)
7days 28days 91days
Fig. 8. Flexural strength.
Table 6
Reduction ratio of compressive strength.
Type 7 days 28 days 91 days
Compressive Strength (MPa) Reduction Ratio (%) Compressive
Strength (MPa)
Reduction Ratio (%) Compressive
Strength (MPa)
Reduction Ratio (%)
35–0 28.8 – 31.9 – 33.4 –
35–50 27.4 4.8 29.5 7.5 31.6 5.4
35–100 24.6 14.7 27.1 15.1 27.1 18.9
45–0 22.6 – 26.7 – 28.2 –
45–50 21.9 3.1 23.5 11.8 26.9 4.6
45–100 17.6 22.1 19.7 26.0 20.0 29.1
55–0 21.1 – 23.2 – 23.9 –
55–50 17.9 15.0 21.6 6.7 22.2 7.0
55–100 17.7 16.1 19.6 15.5 19.1 19.8
I.S. Kim et al. / Construction and Building Materials 184 (2018) 269–277 273


Fig. 9 shows the relationship between the root of compressive
strength and the flexural strength of the concretes with heavy-
weight waste glass aggregates [30,41]. The relationship between
the root of compressive strength and the flexural strength shows
a linear correlation of 0.90 or more. Flexural strength was rated
at about 74.5–98.7% of the root of compressive strength.
Fig. 10 shows compressive and flexural strength compared with
design codes. In general, the flexural strength is in the range of 1/5
to 1/7 of the compressive strength. Therefore, in many countries, a
prediction model of flexural strength using compressive strength is
proposed. In this study, test results are compared with the
predicted model results of KCI, CEB-FIP, ACI 363, and JSCE model
codes [42–45]. As a result of the comparison, the test results were
mainly placed between the ACI model and the KCI model. Although
the heavyweight waste glass is used as fine aggregate, it is shown
that the flexural strength of concrete can be anticipated from com-
pressive strength by the modified model code.
3.3. Freezing and thawing resistance
Figs. 11 and 12 show the results of the freezing and thawing
resistance tests of the concrete. The relative dynamic modulus of
Table 7
Reduction ratio of flexural strength.
Type 7 days 28 days 91 days
Flexural Strength (MPa) Reduction Ratio (%) Flexural Strength (MPa) Reduction Ratio (%) Flexural Strength (MPa) Reduction Ratio (%)
35–0 5.3 – 5.5 – 5.6 –
35–50 4.7 11.9 5.3 3.5 5.8 3.7
35–100 3.9 25.7 4.7 15.3 5.2 8.2
45–0 4.0 – 4.3 – 5.0 –
45–50 3.8 4.7 3.9 8.4 4.6 8.7
45–100 3.5 13.7 3.7 13.8 4.0 20.5
55–0 3.5 – 3.9 – 4.3 –
55–50 3.3 6.1 3.8 4.3 4.4 1.6
55–100 3.2 9.2 3.3 16.0 3.8 11.1
4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
Y=1.5485X + 3.3826
R2
=0.9013
Flexural Strength (MPa)
Root of compressive Strength (MPa)
Fig. 9. The relationship between compressive strength and flexural strength.
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
2
4
6
8
10
KCI CEB ACI 363 JSCE
Flexural strength (MPa)
Compressive strength (MPa)
Fig. 10. The relationship between compressive & flexural strength and design
codes.
0 60 120 180 240 300
60
80
100
120
Cycle
Relative dynamic modulus of elasticity (%)
35-0 35-50 35-100
45-0 45-50 45-100
55-0 55-50 55-100
Fig. 11. Relative dynamic modulus of elasticity.
0 60 120 180 240 300
80
90
100
110
Cycle
Weight Change Ratio (%)
35-0 35-50 35-100
45-0 45-50 45-100
55-0 55-50 55-100
Fig. 12. Weight change ratio.
274 I.S. Kim et al. / Construction and Building Materials 184 (2018) 269–277


elasticity of the concrete in a freezing and thawing resistance test
of 300 cycles is shown in Fig. 11. The test results show that the
relative dynamic modulus of elasticity of the concrete was
decreased by the freezing and thawing until 300 cycles under all
mixing conditions, but the durability index remained good, ranging
from 83 to 96. In other words, waste glass did not significantly
affect the freezing and thawing resistance of the concrete. More
specifically, the W/B ratio of 0.35 exhibited a durability index of
over about 90% under mixed conditions. It can be seen that the
effect of freezing and thawing on W/B ratio is larger than that of
waste glass. Since waste glass is more impervious than sand and
has fewer pores, it can be considered that it is less affected by
freezing and thawing than sand. The changes of the weights of
the concrete measured at every 30th are were shown in Fig. 12.
Under all conditions, concrete had no significant weight change
before or after the freezing and thawing and showed excellent
durability.
3.4. Water absorption ratio
The water absorption ratio of the concrete was measured to
investigate the effect of waste glass substitution on permeability
resistance. As shown in Fig. 13, the waste absorption ratio
increased as the W/B ratio increased, but decreased as the waste
glass substitution ratio increased. Waste glass decreased the water
absorption ratio, probably because the water absorption ratio of
the waste glass is lower than that of sand [46]. In addition, since
glass is impermeable, it might contain less moisture than sand.
As shown in Table 8, as the W/B ratio and the substitution ratio
increased, the water absorption reduction ratio gradually
increased. That is, when the waste glass is used as an ingredient
in concrete, permeability resistance is improved.
3.5. Sulfate attack
To investigate the sulfate attack resistance of the concrete, the
ratio of compressive strength and weight change were measured,
with results shown in Figs. 14 and 15, respectively. The compres-
sive strength ratio refers to the ratio of the compressive strength
of the concrete dipped in a sulfate solution to that of the concrete
35-0 35-50 35-100 45-0 45-50 45-100 55-0 55-50 55-100
0
2
4
6
8
10
Water absorption (%)
Fig. 13. Water absorption ratio.
Table 8
Water absorption and reduction ratio.
Type Water absorption ratio (%) Reduction Ratio (%)
35–0 6.84 –
35–50 6.39 6.6
35–100 6.34 7.3
45–0 7.11 –
45–50 6.76 4.9
45–100 6.43 9.6
55–0 7.37 –
55–50 6.86 6.9
55–100 6.31 14.4
0.88 0.91 0.93
0.84
0.96 0.99
0.86
0.97 0.95
35-0 35-50 35-100 45-0 45-50 45-100 55-0 55-50 55-100
35-0 35-50 35-100 45-0 45-50 45-100 55-0 55-50 55-100
35-0 35-50 35-100 45-0 45-50 45-100 55-0 55-50 55-100
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
Compressive Strength ratio
(a) Curing 28 days
0.91 0.92 0.96 0.95 0.94
1.02
0.85
0.96 0.95
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
Compressive Strength ratio
(b) Curing 56 days
0.9 0.91 0.9 0.94 0.93 0.92 0.94 0.98 0.99
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
Compressive Strength ratio
(c) Curing 91 days
Fig. 14. Results of compressive strength ratio.
I.S. Kim et al. / Construction and Building Materials 184 (2018) 269–277 275


cured in water. A higher compressive strength ratio means a higher
resistance to sulfate attack.
As shown in Fig. 14, comparison of the compressive strength
showed that the decrease of the compressive strength was lower
in the concrete containing waste glass than in the concrete con-
taining no waste glass. This trend of compressive strength decrease
was found in all of the mixing conditions; as the age increased, the
difference gradually decreased. As waste glass is relatively denser
than sand, the resistance to sulfate increased as the waste glass
substitution increased. That is, the substitution of waste glass
may have improved the resistance to sulfate attack.
Fig. 15 shows the weight change ratio, depending on the W/B
ratio, and the waste glass substitution ratio, of the concrete dipped
in a 10% sodium sulfate solution for curing ages of 28, 56, and 91
days. The weight change ratio of the concrete depending on the
dipping period showed that the weight was not significantly chan-
ged by the sulfate attack in all of the mixing conditions. This indi-
cates that concrete containing waste glass has a high resistance to
sulfate, as was also shown by previous studies [2,40].
3.6. Chloride ion penetration
The chloride ion penetration resistance of the concrete, depend-
ing on the W/B ratio and the waste glass substitution ratio, is
shown in Figs. 16 and 17, respectively. As Fig. 16 shows, the chlo-
ride ion penetration depth decreased as the waste glass substitu-
tion ratio increased in all of the mixing conditions. The chloride
ion resistance was further improved by mixing the waste glass at
a higher W/B ratio. As shown in Table 9, in the case of 50% substi-
tution of waste glass, the penetration depth reduction was an aver-
age of 20%, and in the case of 100% substitution of waste glass, the
penetration depth reduction was an average of 36% at a curing of
91 days. The use of waste glass as a substitute for sand can there-
fore improve chloride penetration resistance [2,13,40].
As shown in Fig. 17, the diffusion coefficient decreased as the
waste glass substitution ratio increased at a constant W/B ratio.
The results also showed that the diffusion coefficient greatly
decreased as the waste glass substitution ratio increased, espe-
cially at a high W/B ratio, indicating that the chloride ion penetra-
tion resistance was effectively improved. This may have been
because of the water impermeability of the waste glass, as well
as it having a porosity lower than that of sand. The substitution
of the waste glass improved the chloride ion penetration resistance
by making the concrete microstructure denser.
4. Conclusions
In this study we evaluated the durability of concrete prepared
by substituting heavyweight waste glass for fine aggregates. The
following conclusions were obtained from this study.



  1. Slump increased as the waste glass substitution ratio
    increased, but the increment decreased as the W/B ratio
    increased. Air content slightly increased as the waste glass
    0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
    90
    95
    100
    105
    110
    Weeks
    Weight Change Ratio (%)
    35-0 35-50 35-100
    45-0 45-50 45-100
    55-0 55-50 55-100
    Fig. 15. Weight change ratio.
    35-0 35-50 35-100 45-0 45-50 45-100 55-0 55-50 55-100
    4
    6
    8
    10
    12
    14
    16
    Depth of Penetration (mm)
    Age 28 days
    Age 90 days
    Fig. 16. Depth of penetration.
    20 40 60 80 100
    0
    10
    20
    30
    Diffusion coefficient (x10-12
    m2/sec)
    Age of days
    35-0 35-50 35-100
    45-0 45-50 45-100
    55-0 55-50 55-100
    Fig. 17. Diffusion coefficient.
    Table 9
    Reduction ratio of chloride penetration depth.
    Type Curing 28 days Curing 91 days
    Depth of
    penetration (mm)
    Reduction
    ratio (%)
    Depth of
    penetration (mm)
    Reduction
    ratio (%)
    35–0 9.2 – 8.5 –
    35–50 7.4 19.6 6.9 18.8
    35–100 6.3 31.5 5.5 35.3
    45–0 12.3 – 8.7 –
    45–50 8.4 31.7 6.7 23.0
    45–100 8.9 27.6 5.9 32.2
    55–0 14.8 – 11.2 –
    55–50 12.8 13.5 9.1 18.8
    55–100 10.4 29.7 6.6 41.1
    276 I.S. Kim et al. / Construction and Building Materials 184 (2018) 269–277


substitution ratio increased, but the increase was not signif-
icantly dependent on the W/B ratio or on the waste glass
substitution ratio.
2) Compressive and flexural strength of the concrete decreased
as the W/B ratio and the waste glass substitution ratio
increased. The decrease of the strength may have been due
to decreased adhesion between the waste glass surface and
the cement hydrates.
3) The freezing and thawing resistance test showed that the
weight of the concrete did not significantly change due to
freezing and thawing. The ratio of the relative dynamic mod-
ulus of elasticity was higher than 80% in all of the mixing
conditions, indicating that concrete containing heavyweight
glass waste had good freeze–thaw resistance.
4) The permeability resistance of the concrete increased as the
waste glass substitution ratio increased, because of the low
water absorption ratio of the waste glass. Additionally, the
heavyweight waste glass content may have improved the
sulfate attack resistance of the concrete. Chloride ion pene-
tration resistance is significantly improved when heavy-
weight waste glass is used as fine aggregate.
It is confirmed that concrete mixes with heavyweight waste
glass show excellent durability, thus can be used in radiation
shielding structures. The low compressive and flexural strength
can be increased by using low W/B ratio and low air content. In
subsequent studies, we will evaluate the possibility of concrete
containing heavyweight waste glass through a direct shielding per-
formance verification test.
Conflict of interest
None.
Acknowledgments
This work was supported by the Korea Institute of Energy Tech-
nology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) and the Ministry of Trade,
Industry & Energy (MOTIE) of the Republic of Korea
(No.20171520101680).
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