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نتيجة التلخيص (17%)

While respondents said that rhetoric about the importance of research is increasing, particularly at the large federal- level institutions, their observations suggest that actual research activity is neither advanced nor widespread.Others acknowledged the lack of security but felt that sudden termination was not likely if one was a good teacher and avoided "serious problems." Throughout all the stories, however, was a constant recognition that one's position was temporary, completely dependent on administrative decisions, and susceptible to termination at any time. Such lack of security undermines commitment to the institution and instructors' willingness to take risks. Regarding extrinsic rewards, the expatriates often reported that, while compensation may not be the sole or primary driver for the decision to teach in the UAE, it is generally sufficient and, in some cases, perceived to be somewhat higher than they would expect if employed in their home country. Faculty responses indicated that salaries vary across institutions (with remuneration patterns higher in the larger federal institutions) and reflect market factors across specific fields. Instructors said they often can increase their salary by teaching courses in the summer or taking on various administrative tasks. In addition to basic salary, expatriates also reported receiving 1 month of bonus salary each year. Several specific features of compensation, as explained by the respondents, are noteworthy. The tax-free status of salaries is attractive. Salary level, however, relates to national origin of the faculty member. Typically, Emiratis receive the highest levels of compensation, English-speaking expatriates are next in compensation level, and non-Emirati Arabs and other expatriates receive the lowest levels. Specific salary formulas are not transparent, though, with faculty members reporting being uncertain how salaries are set. The expatriates also reported that, beyond salary, the additional compensation benefits are also attractive. While details vary by institution, they explained that benefits generally include on-campus housing arrangements or a housing allowance, as well as a furniture allowance (which must be reimbursed to the institution if the instructor leaves prior to the end of the contract). They also receive annual vacation allowances, specific health care or cafeteria- style benefits from which they select among several choices, one trip home each year for all family members, sabbatical support (with specific arrangements varying across institutions), some support to attend at least one conference (although amounts vary considerably across institutions) and return airfare. No retirement funds are provided, however. An educational allowance for children is typically offered, but this benefit varies in form across institutions and in some universities has become less attractive in recent years (e.g., insufficient funds to support the education for the number of children they have, a promised arrangement that changed in substance from what was originally offered during the recruitment period, or an overall shift in institutional policy in recent years away from education allowances). In addition to extrinsic rewards that are considered by most faculty members inter- viewed as attractive or at least sufficient, faculty members also identified appealing intrinsic factors. High on the list for most respondents was the opportunity to travel, coupled with the lure of living in a different culture and opportunities to interact with diverse and interesting colleagues. Faculty members also enjoy the quality of living in the UAE, mentioning the safe and secure environment, good weather, and attractive university facilities and grounds. Many also find working with their students to be intrinsically, rewarding, "interesting," "challenging," and "rewarding."Both administrators and faculty members acknowledged that involvement in institutional governance is not a strong tradition in UAE higher education institutions, with cultural traditions typically favoring "top-down," non-transparent decision making by leaders rather than more democratic or inclusive processes. In most of the institutions where respondents work, faculty representative governance bodies do not exist, although shortly before the study, a university staff association had been established at one of the HCT institutions. One instructor stated: "There's a sense that things just come down
Executive decisions are made with very little faculty input.Tenure is not part of the UAE academic system, although respondents explained that UAE nationals holding faculty positions have considerable ongoing job security.Not surprisingly, respondents' comments revealed that this aspect of academic culture depends greatly on departmental context..


النص الأصلي

While respondents said that rhetoric about the importance of research is increasing, particularly at the large federal- level institutions, their observations suggest that actual research activity is neither advanced nor widespread. One respondent claimed that "there is a lot of rediscovering the wheel" (that is, doing low-level research). Another succinctly observed that "research, at the moment, is very much an afterthought." For the most part, rhetoric about research importance seemed to exceed actuality.
Among the faculty interviewees, however, nine reported working hard to develop and maintain research agendas and presence among the international research community in their fields. One scientist at a federal-level public university, for example, spoke with great enthusiasm about his on-going research, his commitment to employ former students in his laboratory, his efforts to respond to institutional encouragement for faculty members to place two articles each year in internationally-recognized journals, and his grant-writing efforts. Another described herself as a "bright light" regarding her continuing work as a researcher, contrasting herself with most colleagues who do not pursue research activities. Those who engage in substantive research reported finding personal satisfaction in pursuing it. One said she tries to stay up with the productivity of her former graduate student colleagues from a Western university. Several mentioned that research is an important part of their professional identity, and that, by publishing in relevant scholarly venues, scholars "keep their names in the field" and maintain the academic currency required to remain mobile. This small group of research-active faculty members stood out as unusual for their persistent efforts to find ways to maintain their identities and work as researchers. The great majority of those interviewed, however, while sometimes acknowledging that institutional leaders are calling for more attention to research, generally did not express either a responsibility or a personal commitment to engage in such scholarship.

We probed to understand more deeply the factors that hinder research productivity. Fifteen of the expatriates implicated "time." Several chose the same metaphor; research is "on top of everything else." One respondent asserted that more academic staff would be needed to reduce teaching responsibilities to free time for research. Almost half of the faculty discussed a range of infrastructure issues that inhibit research activity. These issues include lack of mentoring to foster research skills, inadequate scientific laboratories and equipment to enable high-level technical work, few graduate students to assist with research, insufficient funding for conference travel, and difficulty accessing international journals and publications. Other concerns were getting access to data in some fields, lack of research funding (although at two of the large federal-level public institutions, respondents mentioned new programs to provide internal research grants), and the obstacles involved in solving routine problems, such as computer inadequacies. One instructor summed up the challenges: "I'm supposed to do my own personal research. That is a problem - a big problem because we don't have the resources [such as journal articles]." Taken together, these factors make research "an afterthought," in the words of one faculty member. One of the active and serious researchers explained: "It is quite difficult to do research here. There are so many things that block you. All these basic things [like getting the computer to work] become very, very difficult and time-consuming."
Higher education literature often presents service as the third component of academic work, including institutional service and direct faculty engagement with societal issues. In the UAE, faculty and administrative respondents indicated that the term refers almost exclusively to service to the institution. Academic staff consistently reported that they are expected to serve on - and sometimes reportedly are randomly assigned to - various institutional committees. At least half the faculty respondents explicitly labeled committee work as a significant drain on their time and a barrier to research activity. In describing their service, a few respondents reported roles on journal boards, and others highlighted their consulting as a form of engaging their expertise beyond the institution albeit for personal remuneration. Institutional policies in the UAE, according to administrators and faculty, generally discourage consulting, but about one-quarter of the respondents in the study said they had obtained institutional permission to do so. One said that faculty in Business departments typically produce as much personal income from consulting as from their formal faculty appointments. In contrast to the situation in many countries, however, academic staff in the UAE do not engage in tutoring outside their faculty appointments for remuneration.

This section draws on the information from the expatriate respondents as well as the administrators interviewed to describe the nature of employment contracts, the extent of job security associated with academic positions, and the intrinsic and extrinsic rewards associated with the work. National policies guide employment arrangements for expatriate academics in the UAE. Expatriate workers must be "sponsored," usually by their employer, and, if terminated (which employers can do without identifying a reason), lose their residence visas within 1 month, thus necessitating their leaving the country. Administrators and faculty respondents indicated that instructors are typically hired for 1 year on a probationary basis, followed by rolling or renewable 3-year contracts. Tenure is not part of the UAE academic system, although respondents explained that UAE nationals holding faculty positions have considerable ongoing job security. In contrast, for expatriate faculty, due to national employment policies, there is neither job security nor transparency regarding decisions about termination. While levels of concern about these arrangements varied in intensity among respondents across institutions, the interview data show that these employment conditions clearly affect faculty members' daily approach to their work. One faculty member explained: "We cannot do anything because somebody may say 'you go,' and then you have to go... If you [raise a concern], you' d get fired. Your contract - no more. After 3 months, you will have to leave." Respondents cited examples where they perceived termination to result from faculty members expressing opinions different from those of institutional leaders, asking too many questions, or being involved in personal conflicts, or in situations where students complained to administrators. Others acknowledged the lack of security but felt that sudden termination was not likely if one was a good teacher and avoided "serious problems." Throughout all the stories, however, was a constant recognition that one's position was temporary, completely dependent on administrative decisions, and susceptible to termination at any time. Such lack of security undermines commitment to the institution and instructors' willingness to take risks. Regarding extrinsic rewards, the expatriates often reported that, while compensation may not be the sole or primary driver for the decision to teach in the UAE, it is generally sufficient and, in some cases, perceived to be somewhat higher than they would expect if employed in their home country. Faculty responses indicated that salaries vary across institutions (with remuneration patterns higher in the larger federal institutions) and reflect market factors across specific fields. Instructors said they often can increase their salary by teaching courses in the summer or taking on various administrative tasks. In addition to basic salary, expatriates also reported receiving 1 month of bonus salary each year. Several specific features of compensation, as explained by the respondents, are noteworthy. The tax-free status of salaries is attractive. Salary level, however, relates to national origin of the faculty member. Typically, Emiratis receive the highest levels of compensation, English-speaking expatriates are next in compensation level, and non-Emirati Arabs and other expatriates receive the lowest levels. Specific salary formulas are not transparent, though, with faculty members reporting being uncertain how salaries are set.
The expatriates also reported that, beyond salary, the additional compensation benefits are also attractive. While details vary by institution, they explained that benefits generally include on-campus housing arrangements or a housing allowance, as well as a furniture allowance (which must be reimbursed to the institution if the instructor leaves prior to the end of the contract). They also receive annual vacation allowances, specific health care or cafeteria- style benefits from which they select among several choices, one trip home each year for all family members, sabbatical support (with specific arrangements varying across institutions), some support to attend at least one conference (although amounts vary considerably across institutions) and return airfare. No retirement funds are provided, however. An educational allowance for children is typically offered, but this benefit varies in form across institutions and in some universities has become less attractive in recent years (e.g., insufficient funds to support the education for the number of children they have, a promised arrangement that changed in substance from what was originally offered during the recruitment period, or an overall shift in institutional policy in recent years away from education allowances). In addition to extrinsic rewards that are considered by most faculty members inter- viewed as attractive or at least sufficient, faculty members also identified appealing intrinsic factors. High on the list for most respondents was the opportunity to travel, coupled with the lure of living in a different culture and opportunities to interact with diverse and interesting colleagues. Faculty members also enjoy the quality of living in the UAE, mentioning the safe and secure environment, good weather, and attractive university facilities and grounds. Many also find working with their students to be intrinsically, rewarding, "interesting," "challenging," and "rewarding."
. Respondents across the institutions were highly consistent in how they described the nature of autonomy experienced in their work. While university or department curriculum committees often set overall curriculum plans, most instructors are free to decide how to teach their classes. Some mentioned having greater autonomy in individual topical courses, as compared to courses with multiple sections.
One administrator asserted that faculty members enjoy free inquiry and open discussion, but also observed that, while nationals feel they can speak very openly, expatriates feel less free to be frank and tend to learn in what contexts they can do so. Several respondents noted that they are watchful about their comments in class, since students have been known to go directly to administrators with complaints about faculty members. A number also indicated that they are careful and guarded in making criticisms or suggestions concerning their university. As one explained, "if you have some concern about the university, you cannot raise your voice [because you may be fired]. It means that you don't have freedom." Overall, expatriates' awareness of their lack of employment security serves as a de facto constraint on their willingness to speak openly on topics that could be considered controversial. Descriptions about flexibility in organizing one's work varied across respondents. Some said that they felt an expectation to be present on campus on a "9-6 basis." Others indicated they could work at home or off-campus, if they were present for teaching and office hours.
collegiality can be considered in terms of relationships with fellow academics as well as involvement of academic staff in institutional decision-making. Two- thirds of the expatriate faculty reported turning to colleagues for guidance, information, friendship, and support. A faculty member at one of the federal universities, for example, described the bi-weekly seminars in which departmental colleagues discuss topics of mutual interest in their field, the daily lunches in which they chat about their lives, and the out-pouring of help she was offered by colleagues when she was settling into her position. Another said simply: "We have a very good cooperative spirit. We help each other to solve problems." However, more than half of those who described how colleagues help each other also indicated that these relationships are based more on courtesy and cordiality than a strong sense of community and genuine connection. Factors that respondents cited as mitigating against stronger connections include limited time and the diversity of colleagues in age and background coupled with their transience; one faculty member at a federal-level public university characterized her department as "like a railroad station" regarding the rapid turn-over of instructors. Others, however, extolled the diversity of colleagues in their departments as the source of rewarding relationships. Not surprisingly, respondents' comments revealed that this aspect of academic culture depends greatly on departmental context. Both administrators and faculty members acknowledged that involvement in institutional governance is not a strong tradition in UAE higher education institutions, with cultural traditions typically favoring "top-down," non-transparent decision making by leaders rather than more democratic or inclusive processes. In most of the institutions where respondents work, faculty representative governance bodies do not exist, although shortly before the study, a university staff association had been established at one of the HCT institutions. One instructor stated: "There's a sense that things just come down
Executive decisions are made with very little faculty input. So, I guess that probably has an influence on how much faculty identify with an organization." While faculty members frequently mentioned their committee work, they also explained that committees were used more to inform academic staff of administrative decisions than to produce faculty-driven outcomes. One respondent at a federal-level institution said that, since decisions are made far beyond the faculty level with little faculty input, it works best to "just do your job." Another respondent characterized instructors as "employees" who don't have power to run the institutions. A few conveyed worry for their job security if they should express questions about senior-level decision making or institutional directions, preferring, as one said, to "stay under the radar" to avoid attracting attention that could jeopardize job security. One explained: "Many have learned the hard way that it's just not a good idea. While they say the door is open, some people have received flashback for coming up with feedback or ideas. There's been kind of a mixed message, so I think people are very reticent to get involved with ...feedback." Several specifically mentioned that the lack of tenure makes instructors reluctant to speak up about institutional matters. As one stated, "Without tenure, faculty are afraid to go out on a limb and be public with their suggestions for improvement.
The expatriate faculty reported that annual reviews in which an instructor meets with a curriculum supervisor or department chair occur at some institutions, and performance reviews with chairs or deans are typical at the time an instructor is being considered for reappointment or promotion. However, several commented explicitly that they perceive such reviews, and often related decisions about promotion and rewards, are not organized around specific and systematic criteria. At some institutions, arrangements are made for class observations, usually by fellow instructors. However, respondents reported that the guidelines and criteria for such observations are usually not clear. An administrator at one of the large federal institutions opined that one of the greatest challenges to institutional improvement is the lack of a strong peer-reviewed career progression policy. Reports from two institutions, however, provided a somewhat different picture. In two of the state-level semi-public institutions, faculty members indicated that the annual review process is guided by clear criteria. In one case, several faculty members consistently described the components of the institution's annual review (which includes documentation of teaching, research, and service activities, student ratings, and a statement by the instructor of plans for the coming year). Another institution reportedly is moving toward more formal review processes. In terms of professional development, respondents at all the institutions most frequently mentioned the availability of travel funds for conference attendance (usually one or two conferences within the country). At four of the universities, faculty mentioned occasional workshops or seminars, such as on technology topics, but systematic offerings across the year are not typical. At the larger public and semi-public institutions, some provision for sabbaticals is available, although policies vary, and some faculty suggested that funding was diminishing. According to the respondents, orientation and mentoring programs are not regularly offered, although instructors at one university mentioned a new faculty orientation program. The most frequent comment was that faculty are "on their own" for their professional development, that professional development is "on your back," and that instructors turn to each other for help with teaching or other questions.
Impact on faculty satisfaction, morale, and institutional commitment
When asked about satisfactions in their positions, their comments gravitated around the pleasures they find in helping students gain confidence, learn, and grow. Yet, despite these motivators and satisfactions, aspects of faculty members' work experiences undermine their overall sense of satisfaction, morale, and commitment. A general sense of being unappreciated pervaded the comments of the majority of expatriate faculty respondents across institutional types (although we note that some did not express this view). Across the institutions, respondents used metaphors such as "feeling like a mercenary" or being treated as "expendable," or academic staff being viewed by administrators as "cogs in a machine," or as "spare parts." One faculty member said he "just focuses on his teaching" because he perceives that the institution has no commitment to individuals and their career development. Another noted that "one can never feel too safe," since making a major mistake could mean "you are gone." Faculty members often feel that they are viewed as "the employee," someone with a short-term contract who can be easily replaced by others willing and eager to respond to the opportunities and benefits associated with employment within the UAE, as illustrated in this quotation: "There's other professors that can be hired. ...They're just satisfied if somebody finishes the contract and moves on. It's not a problem. They will just hire somebody else." In this context, academic staff are committed not to the employing institution but, as several interviewees explained, to their "jobs" as teachers and to their own careers or long- range plans. In the words of one expatriate, "People don't see this as 'my' institution;" rather, he said, "It's 'someone's' institution. I work for the institution. I get a salary. That's it. When I get a better option, then I go." Another respondent's reflections on how his colleagues showed a nuanced perspective on commitment: "Maybe there's two ways I can talk about commitment. One is just in terms of commitment toward the job they're given - immediate commitment. There I see people are conscientious and doing a good job.... [However] long-term commitment I would say is not high at all." Expatriate faculty work very hard to meet the needs of their current students, and, in the words of one instructor, they strive to express "high professionalism despite the working conditions." At the same time, most are sanguine about the fact that they do not feel highly valued by the institution and they are likely to leave at some point. Within this situation, what many wants is to feel valued and respected by institutional leaders for the work they do and the contributions they make.
Discussion, implications, and questions Academic work in the UAE is shaped by factors in the national and institutional contexts, as well as by the motivations, commitments, and interests that faculty members bring to their work. On one level, the arrangements work well for all involved. Universities in the UAE want to employ academic staff from other countries while the pool of qualified academics with Emirati citizenship grows larger. Short-term contracts ensure institutional flexibility as student enrollments grow and needs for expertise in topical areas change. At the same time, a steady flow of expatriates seeking opportunities to live and work in the region, to experience adventure and travel opportunities, or to pursue academic work without the research demands or other issues they encountered in their home countries find the arrangements acceptable and, in fact, for some, enticing. Their commitment to students and teaching provides the intrinsic rewards to accompany the generally attractive extrinsic rewards from the salaries and benefits offered.
Efforts to create systematic professional development programs for UAE faculty would be an investment in institutional excellence and planning. The turn-over of expatriate faculty makes such professional development even more important to help new instructors understand the particularities of the UAE higher education context and to develop the teaching and research skills most appropriate for their institutions* missions. The issue of greatest concern to expatriate faculty and possibly most important in terms of its relationship to long-term institutional quality is the effect of the lack of job security. Short-term contracts, the knowledge that one's job can be terminated suddenly and without explanation, and the general sense shared by many academic staff that the institution does not fully value and respect their expertise and contributions serve to inhibit the willingness of faculty members to take risks in their teaching and other assignments, and to engage in the open discussions of institutional issues and challenges that pave the way for innovation, change, and improvement. Limited job security also undermines institutional commitment, contributing to a situation where instructors see themselves primarily as employees fulfilling jobs rather than as institutional citizens contributing to overall institutional quality. At present, the current employment arrangements for expatriate faculty may give the UAE the faculty they need, while leaving control and decision making within the purview of institutional leaders. In the longer term, however, institutional quality, innovation, and responsiveness - all characteristics arguably necessary in the competitive and changing international higher education context - may be difficult to achieve or maintain without a more stable and fully committed academic workforce. One illustration of this point is that high quality graduate education, which is typically part of internationally recognized higher education systems, is difficult to offer if students cannot rely on the stability of their faculty members. Decisions about the employment conditions of expatriate faculty should be linked with discussions of factors that contribute to institutional quality and reputation. Even though academic staff have relatively short tenures in their appointments, strategies could be developed to enhance their sense of institutional commitment. Stronger feelings of institutional commitment would likely lead to greater creativity and contributions of time and talent from academic staff. This study of the work of expatriate faculty also indicates that academic staff members are concerned primarily with teaching and give little attention to research. While some universities are developing plans to increase research activity, respondents generally perceived these efforts as more rhetorical than substantive. Advances in research productivity usually require appropriate professional development to help faculty members hone their skills and abilities, adequate funding sources, appropriate equipment, opportunities for researchers to travel, meet, and collaborate with colleagues in other institutions and countries, and evaluation and incentive systems to steer faculty time and attention to research activity. The findings in this paper suggest that faculty members - particularly the expatriates - are not supported in the ways necessary for growth in institutional research portfolios. Persuasive arguments can be made for some institutions to focus primarily on undergraduate education, and this paper does not offer a position on the relative balance regarding teaching and research emphasis in UAE higher education institutions. However, if a national or institutional goal is to increase research visibility and strength, the findings of this study indicate the need for more careful attention to the conditions under which faculty members could engage in solid and productive research.
As the higher education system in the UAE expands, talented and dedicated faculty members will be essential if higher education institutions are to meet expectations for their contributions to national priorities. However, government and institutional leaders face the challenge of engaging and supporting the commitment, talent, and focus of academic staff in a changing environment. The analysis in this paper points to several important questions deserving attention among UAE government and higher education leaders, including the following: What are appropriate and useful ways to conceptualize academic work in the UAE? While western models of academic work deserve attention if UAE institutions strive to compete for reputation with universities throughout the world, other models may be more useful and relevant to the UAE context. What might these models be? How can government and higher education leaders in the UAE best meet goals of higher education development in the context of current traditions, opportunities, and constraints? Within the country's culture, what might be appropriate and productive approaches to professional development, research development, and support for undergraduate learning? This paper provides a picture of the work experiences and perspectives of expatriate faculty in the UAE, useful to academics considering work in that country as well as to leaders in the UAE. It also has relevance beyond the UAE by shedding light on the kinds of issues that arise when faculty are in temporary or short-term employment conditions that offer little job security. While specific contexts vary by nation, the study offers insights and issues for consideration as academic work in various countries shifts toward contract-based rather than permanent position.

تلخيص النصوص العربية والإنجليزية أونلاين

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تلخيص النصوص العربية والإنجليزية اليا باستخدام الخوارزميات الإحصائية وترتيب وأهمية الجمل في النص

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