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نتيجة التلخيص (83%)

1) Brief History of Hydraulic Fracturing
The first attempts at fracturing formations for the purpose of improving production were not hydraulic in nature - they involved the use of high explosives to break the formation apart and provide "flow channels" from the reservoir to the wellbore. There are records indicating that this took place as early as 1890. This type of reservoir stimulation reached its ultimate conclusion with the experimental use of nuclear devices to fracture relatively shallow, low-permeability formations in the late 1950s and early 1960s. By the late 1930s, acidizing had become an accepted well development technique. Several practitioners observed that above a certain "breakdown" pressure, injectivity would increase dramatically.In 1940, Torrey recognized the pressure induced fracturing of formations for what it was.It is probable that many of these early acid treatments were in fact acid fractures.His observations were based on squeeze cementing operations.


النص الأصلي

1) Brief History of Hydraulic Fracturing
The first attempts at fracturing formations for the purpose of improving production were not hydraulic in nature – they involved the use of high explosives to break the formation apart and provide “flow channels” from the reservoir to the wellbore. There are records indicating that this took place as early as 1890. This type of reservoir stimulation reached its ultimate conclusion with the experimental use of nuclear devices to fracture relatively shallow, low-permeability formations in the late 1950s and early 1960s.
By the late 1930s, acidizing had become an accepted well development technique. Several practitioners observed that above a certain “breakdown” pressure, injectivity would increase dramatically. It is probable that many of these early acid treatments were in fact acid fractures.
In 1940, Torrey recognized the pressure induced fracturing of formations for what it was. His observations were based on squeeze cementing operations. He presented data to show that the pressures generated during these operations could part the rocks along bedding planes or other lines of “sedimentary weakness”. Similar observations were made for water injection wells by Yuster and Calhoun in 1945.
The first intentional hydraulic fracturing process for stimulation was performed in the Hugoton gas field in western Kansas, in 1947. The Klepper No 1 well was completed with 4 gas producing limestone intervals, one of which had been previously treated with acid. Four separate treatments were pumped, one for each zone, with a primitive packer being employed for isolation. The fluid used for the treatment was war-surplus napalm, surely an extremely hazardous operation. However, 3000 gals of fluid were pumped into each formation. Although post treatment tests showed that the gas injectivity of some zones had been increased relative to others, the overall deliverability from the well was not increased. It was therefore concluded that fracturing would not replace acidizing for limestone formations. However, by the mid-1960’s, propped hydraulic fracturing had replaced acidizing as the preferred stimulation method in the Hugoton field. Early treatments were pumped at 1 to 2 bpm with sand concentrations of 1 to 2 PPA.
Today, thousands of these treatments are pumped every year, ranging from small skin bypass fracs at $20,000, to massive fracturing treatments that end up costing well over $1million. Many fields only produce because of the hydraulic fracturing process. In spite of this, many industry practitioners remain ignorant of the processes involved and of what can be achieved (Economides, 2007).

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