Literature review Smart ship design and construction have emerged as transformative forces in the maritime industry, driven by technological advancements and the imperative for sustainable practices. This literature review examines key research findings, technological developments, and industry trends related to smart ship design and construction. 1. Technological Advancements:Recent years have witnessed significant advancements in key technologies shaping smart ship design. Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning algorithms are increasingly integrated into vessel systems for predictive maintenance, route optimization, and autonomous operations (Xu et al., 2020). The Internet of Things (IoT) sensors enable real-time monitoring of vessel performance, fuel consumption, and environmental conditions (Choi et al., 2019). Furthermore, advanced materials such as lightweight composites and nanotechnology coatings enhance vessel durability, corrosion resistance, and fuel efficiency (Wang et al., 2021). 2. Operational Efficiency and Safety:Smart ship technologies contribute to improving operational efficiency and safety across various aspects of maritime operations. AI-based predictive analytics optimize maintenance schedules, reducing downtime and repair costs (Tan et al., 2018). IoT sensors enable early detection of potential malfunctions, preventing accidents and minimizing risks to crew and cargo (Jones & Smith, 2019). Automation systems streamline onboard operations, enhancing crew productivity and reducing human error (Kim et al., 2020). 3. Environmental Sustainability:One of the primary drivers behind the adoption of smart ship technologies is their potential to enhance environmental sustainability in maritime transportation. LNG-powered engines and hybrid propulsion systems reduce greenhouse gas emissions and air pollutants, aligning with international regulations such as IMO's MARPOL Annex VI (Smith et al., 2020). Additionally, AI-driven route optimization minimizes fuel consumption and carbon footprint, contributing to cleaner and more efficient maritime transport (Choi & Lee, 2021). 4. Challenges and Barriers:Despite the promising benefits, several challenges and barriers hinder the widespread adoption of smart ship technologies. Cybersecurity threats pose significant risks to vessel operations and data integrity (Yang et al., 2019). Regulatory frameworks lag behind technological advancements, creating uncertainty and compliance challenges for shipowners and operators (Tan & Zhang, 2020). Moreover, the high initial costs of implementing smart ship solutions deter some stakeholders from investing in these innovations (Wu et al., 2021). 5. Future Directions:Looking ahead, future research and industry initiatives are poised to address these challenges and further advance smart ship design and construction. Collaboration between industry stakeholders, regulatory bodies, and research institutions is essential to develop comprehensive cybersecurity standards and regulatory frameworks (Tan & Zhang, 2020). Additionally, ongoing research into alternative fuels, propulsion systems, and energy-efficient technologies will continue to drive innovation towards more sustainable maritime transportation (Choi & Lee, 2021). The literature highlights the transformative potential of smart ship design and construction in enhancing operational efficiency, safety, and environmental sustainability in the maritime industry. While challenges persist, concerted efforts towards technological innovation, regulatory alignment, and industry collaboration are essential for realizing the full benefits of smart ship technologies.