write an essay about the challenges faced by modern civilisation There are three major threats to our civilisation, which can lead to the destruction of mankind. We have first nuclear energy, which has been a constant liability ever since the explosion of atomic bombs in 1945; there is also pollution, a major cause for concern with the massive and noxious increase in industrial activities and mechanisation; finally, climate change constitutes another threat, as an outcome of the first two mentioned problems. The escalation of nuclear weaponry since World War Two has exposed humanity to a nuclear war that would not compare at all with Hiroshima and Nagasaki, since it could wipe out life on earth many times over. The Cold War was a period of tension between the two most heavily equipped nations in terms of nuclear warheads, the USA and the USSR. The D├ętente that came after did not suppress all worries, since other countries have the bomb, and could use it any time. There are also indirect consequences to owning nuclear energy. Indeed, a lethal form of pollution can originate from it if accidents in nuclear power plants occur. But apparently less dangerous forms of pollution, generated by an ever- increasing industrialisation, can also cause severe illnesses and deaths. We can think of all the chemicals dumped by factories underground, or in rivers and seas, or of the enormous amounts of smoke emitted in the air by factories and vehicles. All of these are causing all sorts of illnesses in humans and threatening wildlife. Apart from these direct consequences, the third threat to our civilisation, climate change, is directly related to the first two mentioned. Smoke has resulted in the greenhouse effect, responsible for the increase in mean temperature in the world. Consequently, the ice caps in the north and south poles are shrinking, the sea level is rising, rains have become irregular, hurricanes are more frequent, monsoons are more destructive, droughts have intensified, and have reached usually wet parts of the world. Therefore, the danger of famine is real , and can even lead to dramatic wars over the possession of the meagre resources remaining. Surely the impending threat of nuclear warfare, and the lethal chemicals spread in the environment make the world a dangerous place to live. The tons of smoke sent out in the atmosphere also constitute a health hazard, and are responsible for climate change. There are indeed urgent measures to be taken by governments to make human activities safer if our civilisation is to survive and thrive.