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Something exceptional happened first in England and later in Northwestern Europe beginning in the second half of the eighteenth century. Institutions, state and the ability to achieve technological breakthroughs all need to be taken into account in any satisfactory explanation as to why and where the Industrial Revolution took place. This essay attempts to situate the Ottoman Empire in the eighteenth century. Until the 1780s, this century was a period of economic expansion for the Ottoman Empire but the empire was surely not in a position to achieve an Industrial Revolution of its own or even an extended period of technological change and productivity increases. The essay also argues that the explanation for this state of affairs should be searched not in any external intervention or impact but n i internal structures and dynamics. In short, social and economic forces for change remained weak while the Ottoman state was strong enough to defend a traditional order, In other words, the Ottoman Empire was once a great power, ruling the Middle East and much of North Africa and Eastern Europe. 2. By the end of the nineteenth century, the empire was in decline, shrinking in size and prone to internal problems and instability. The history of contemporary Turkey began with the establishment of the republic on October 29, 1923, by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk as the first president of the Turkish Republic. At this stage, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk appeared and organized the resistance of the occupiers in Sivas and eastern Turkey, and began a liberation war to reunify the country, until the Allied forces were evacuated from Istanbul on October 6, 1923, and then the establishment of the Turkish Republic was announced on October 29 of the same year, and Mustafa Kemal was installed Its first president came the next day (October 30), and he remained in office until his death in 1938. During the republican era, Turkey experienced radical changes that affected all aspects of her life.


Original text

Something exceptional happened first in England and later in Northwestern Europe beginning in the second half of the eighteenth century. Institutions, state and the ability to achieve technological breakthroughs all need to be taken into account in any satisfactory explanation as to why and where the Industrial Revolution took place. This essay attempts to situate the Ottoman Empire in the eighteenth century. Until the 1780s, this century was a period of economic expansion for the Ottoman Empire but the empire was surely not in a position to achieve an Industrial Revolution of its own or even an extended period of technological change and productivity increases. The essay also argues that the explanation for this state of affairs should be searched not in any external intervention or impact but n i internal structures and dynamics. In short, social and economic forces for change remained weak while the Ottoman state was strong enough to defend a traditional order, In other words, the Ottoman Empire was once a great power, ruling the Middle East and much of North Africa and Eastern Europe. 2. By the end of the nineteenth century, the empire was in decline, shrinking in size and prone to internal problems and instability. The history of contemporary Turkey began with the establishment of the republic on October 29, 1923, by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk as the first president of the Turkish Republic. At this stage, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk appeared and organized the resistance of the occupiers in Sivas and eastern Turkey, and began a liberation war to reunify the country, until the Allied forces were evacuated from Istanbul on October 6, 1923, and then the establishment of the Turkish Republic was announced on October 29 of the same year, and Mustafa Kemal was installed Its first president came the next day (October 30), and he remained in office until his death in 1938. During the republican era, Turkey experienced radical changes that affected all aspects of her life.

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