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نتيجة التلخيص (26%)

membership in the European Union was to encourage the EU leadership as well as the governments
of the leading member states to make concessions to London."A significant part of
future attention, including EU forces and
resources, will be absorbed by building new
relations between Britain and the EU," Umland
said [11]. Undoubtedly, Brexit will form many
internal problems for the European Union,
which will mean that Ukraine may for somee disappear from the spotlight of its
partners in the EU.
There is no doubt that, with the release of
the United Kingdom, Kyiv will lose some of the
strong support for its European aspirations
within the EU. Britain, as we know, was
against the deepening of integration within
the European Union, but supported its
expansion at the expense of new members. The United Kingdom has long been one of the
key players supporting the European
aspirations of our state. In addition, Britain is
one of the main forces in the European Union,
which advocates the preservation of sanctions
against Russia. The United Kingdom plays the
role of a nucleus in the camp of European
countries (Poland, the Baltic States, Romania,
Bulgaria, Sweden), which are cautious about
Russia after its aggression in Ukraine and are
not going to make concessions about
sanctions. According to G.Kukhaleishvili, Britain is the
only European country that, in its authority
and economic influence, can equitably enter
into a debate with the Franco-German
tandem, as well as with certain political circles
of member states that question the
expediency of continuing anti-Russian
sanctions ( Italy, Greece, Slovakia). As a
result, according to O.Riabchina, we will lose
one of the strongest friends of Ukraine in the
European Union, whose rigid position in
counteracting Russian aggression often
balances the moderate Franco-German
position [1]. As the diplomat, Maidan of Foreign Affairs
expert O. Hara, Britain, as a strategic ally of
the United States, played an important role in
shaping the united position of Washington and
Brussels on Russia's containment. Brexit,
meanwhile, entrusts the fate of European
sanctions to the Franco-German tandem,
which reinforces the position of supporters of
the "carrot policy".Therefore, the development of policy in this
direction can be more likely to unite than to
disassociate players in the European arena.According to some calculations, the
EU "costs" 430 pounds a year to British
households. Eurosceptics believe that this
money can be spent more for the benefit of its
own state, that is to research and inventions
in the fields of science and technology. But, on
the other hand, the EU is paying attention to
the fact that these households cover their
losses, gaining up to 3,000 pounds of benefits
from membership in the European Union. And another important reason was
standardization. The British do not like the
fact that the EU sets standards and standards
for sizes, forms of things, and more. EU
lawyers are convinced that the availability of
one European standard is much more
convenient and advantageous than the
twenty-eight national standard. In turn,
opponents of EU membership believe that the
country must have national control of
everything, especially on security,
employment and health. It is believed that Britain's exit with the EU
can create a "domino effect".Under conditions where the opposition will
deepen political integration in London, while
the elites in Brussels and the national capitals
will be scared by the prospect of a collapse of
the EU, Europeans can give Berlin a complete
map of blanche for quick and decisive
integration reforms aimed at making a
European Unity is so deep and fundamental
that nobody even has the idea of leaving the
Union.Under these conditions, Berlin will be
able to slow down the implementation of the
steps Britain has hampered,
namely:
- registration of a pan-European migration
policy;
- creation of a single EU army;
- Strengthening the integration of the
budgets of the EU member states.The specified
requirements can be divided into four blocks
[3]:
- Integration and sovereignty: London
demanded from Brussels that the main
goal of integration - the creation of an
"ever closer union" - did not extend to the
UK, which allowed the latter not to
participate in further political integration.


النص الأصلي

membership in the European Union was to encourage the EU leadership as well as the governments
of the leading member states to make concessions to London.
On May 28, 2015, the new government of
D. Cameron introduced to the House of
Commons a question regarding the holding of
a referendum by the end of 2017 on further
membership in the European Union. On
November 10, the same year, D. Cameron
informed the President of the European
Council, D. Tusk, of Britain's demands for
reform in the Union. The specified
requirements can be divided into four blocks
[3]:



  • Integration and sovereignty: London
    demanded from Brussels that the main
    goal of integration - the creation of an
    "ever closer union" - did not extend to the
    UK, which allowed the latter not to
    participate in further political integration.
    In addition, the British government has
    demanded the creation of a so-called "red
    card" system, which would allow national
    parliaments to cancel or veto the Brussels
    directives;

  • Competitiveness: London demanded
    expansion of the scope of the common
    market and the restriction of "Brussels
    bureaucracy";

  • social assistance: the Cameron
    government has demanded the
    introduction of a "emergency braking"
    mechanism that would allow Britain, as
    well as any other EU country to restrict
    access to social benefits of migrants from
    other Union countries, if it is substantiated
    that the social system of the state
    concerned is excessive load;

  • relations between the euro area and the
    rest of the EU: London, which kept its own
    currency, demanded, first, the veto power
    of the monetary decisions made in the euro
    area, and secondly, guarantees that
    measures to establish a financial union
    would not be third countries that are not
    part of the euro, thirdly, guarantees that
    London will not be obliged to provide
    emergency financial assistance to the
    countries of the euro area. In fact, Britain
    wanted to introduce the principle of
    multicountry of the EU. If Brussels were to
    accept this, it would mean recognizing that
    it is impossible to bring all EU member
    states into the euro area. UK [5].
    It should be noted that if in Brussels and
    the capitals of the leading member states
    these demands were perceived as
    inappropriate and the referendum was a
    threat, then Cameron's party members were
    upset by the fact that the stated demands for
    EU reform were not radical enough. The
    position of most EU member states was
    expressed by German Chancellor A. Merkel,
    who believed that all the countries of the
    Union are seeking to maintain UK
    membership, but not everyone is ready to
    accept its terms. Since all other Member
    States were aware that it was unlikely that
    such preferences received by London would
    have been achieved, no one in the EU resisted
    the conclusion of an agreement between
    Britain and the EU.
    After several months of negotiations, the
    Government of Cameron succeeded in
    concluding an agreement with the European
    Union on the special status of Great Britain on
    19 February 2016.
    On June 23, 2016, a referendum took place
    in the UK, which was of great historical
    significance for the country. The British, by
    voting, decided whether it would make sense
    for the UK to remain a member of the
    European Union, or it would be more
    appropriate to leave it.
    The agreement included three blocks [1]:

  • UK introduces restrictions on access to the
    social security system for migrant workers
    from the EU. For four years from the date
    of arrival, new migrants will not receive
    any social assistance. This means that
    labor migrants need to have their own
    savings, as well as secure an employer's
    guarantee of employment for a term of at
    least four years;

  • The British financial system has gained
    independence from the European Central
    Bank, but London has not received the
    right to veto monetary decisions of the
    euro area;

  • Britain has the right not to participate in
    the processes of European integration, if
    this is contrary to the interests of Britain
    [8].
    Thus, the British government has achieved
    what the supporters of Britain's exit from the
    EU have been struggling with. The agreement,
    which was unanimously endorsed by the
    European Council, was supposed to come into
    effect only on condition that the UnKingdom will remain in the European Union on
    the basis of the referendum.
    The result of the referendum was that
    51.9% of Britons (17.41 million people) voted
    to leave the United Kingdom with the EU,
    while 48.1% (16.14 million people) supported
    European integration [7]. The country will be
    able to exit from the EU only in a few years,
    but the process of divorce between the UK
    and the European Union has already begun:
    British Prime Minister Teresa May officially
    informed Brussels about this and sent a letter
    there.
    Great Britain has been doing this for a long
    time. In 2013, David Cameron, who headed
    the post of prime minister in front of his party
    counterpart from the Conservative Party,
    Teresa May, the current prime minister of the
    country, assured the British that such a
    referendum would be held if his party won the
    election.
    It was simply not possible to hold a
    nationwide referendum, as the conservatives
    also won a part of the party that was skeptical
    about Europe and the ultra-right. The United
    Kingdom's Independence Party exercised
    political pressure on David Cameron [2].
    But this was not the only reason for voting:
    almost the entire British population was
    dissatisfied with the direction of the European
    Union policy, according to which it had been
    moving since 1973. Great Britain has always
    tried to intervene in the first instance of the
    European Community, and then of the
    European Union itself. She was cautious about
    her membership in the European Union,
    remaining almost aloof. For example, the fact
    that the United Kingdom never entered the
    Schengen area and introduced the currency of
    the European Union in the country quite
    convincingly confirms this [4].
    Great Britain often complained about the
    decisions that were adopted by the European
    Union, which it itself did not want to discuss
    because of its inattention.
    Britons consider migration to be the most
    important reason for the termination of
    membership in the European Union. They are
    outraged by the uncontrolled "open door"
    system that prevails in the European Union
    and believes that this could lead to a massive
    influx of migrants from the EU (especially
    from the recently acceded countries - Poland,
    Romania, Slovakia). This issue is one of the
    most important for the British population, as
    more than 2 million migrants are currently
    living in Britain. Many young people, even
    from countries such as Portugal, Spain, Italy,
    move to Britain to find work and a better life
    because of certain economic difficulties that
    have gone through Europe [7].
    Another reason for leaving the EU is
    financial. According to some calculations, the
    EU "costs" 430 pounds a year to British
    households. Eurosceptics believe that this
    money can be spent more for the benefit of its
    own state, that is to research and inventions
    in the fields of science and technology. But, on
    the other hand, the EU is paying attention to
    the fact that these households cover their
    losses, gaining up to 3,000 pounds of benefits
    from membership in the European Union.
    And another important reason was
    standardization. The British do not like the
    fact that the EU sets standards and standards
    for sizes, forms of things, and more. EU
    lawyers are convinced that the availability of
    one European standard is much more
    convenient and advantageous than the
    twenty-eight national standard. In turn,
    opponents of EU membership believe that the
    country must have national control of
    everything, especially on security,
    employment and health.
    It is believed that Britain's exit with the EU
    can create a "domino effect". That is, other EU
    member states will want to leave. That will
    weaken the EU position and strengthen
    Russia's position in the geopolitical arena. This
    should be expected from countries such as
    Denmark, Austria, the Netherlands or even
    Poland and the Czech Republic, because the
    heads of these states are often seriously
    criticizing the EU policy [9].
    It is important to note that the UK's exit
    from the European Union is not a matter of
    days, not even one year. The European Union
    has its own well-established system of ties
    that will be severely disrupted. Take the
    example of the question of money: the EU
    forms its budget for 7 years ahead and
    determines which country and how much to
    get and how much to give. It is impossible to
    break down the work of this mechanism so
    quickly.
    Also, the EU is pursuing a common policy
    with other countries in various areas of vital
    activity of the population. For example,
    consider the agrarian sector. Farmers in
    Britain use agricultural subsidies from the EU.
    The size and procedure for the grant of grants
    is calculated for several years in advance. Tomonths, it takes years. The same applies to
    salaries and pensions.
    Also, the parliament will have to accept at
    least 7 laws relating to the independent life of
    the United Kingdom about trade, finance,
    border and customs issues [6].
    Another important consequence is the
    issue of trade. The European Union and the
    United States have no free trade zone, but
    talks have already begun. It is clear that after
    the release of Britain, it is necessary to
    negotiate with the USA independently, but it
    alone has a much less influence. At the same
    time, thanks to decades of integration with
    the EU, Britain will have nothing to do with
    targeting the European market. Probably not
    such consequences were expected by fans of
    brexit.
    It is obvious that breksit will be a shock to
    the European Union and the West as a whole,
    the consequences of which are extremely
    difficult to predict: if one of the experts
    believes that it will be the beginning of the
    end of the EU, the latter will see it as an
    important step towards unification of Europe,
    because in order to preserve unity, Europe is
    compelled will be consolidated. So, it's
    obvious that Britain's withdrawal from the EU
    will have both obvious consequences and
    those that are hard to predict today.
    Under conditions where the opposition will
    deepen political integration in London, while
    the elites in Brussels and the national capitals
    will be scared by the prospect of a collapse of
    the EU, Europeans can give Berlin a complete
    map of blanche for quick and decisive
    integration reforms aimed at making a
    European Unity is so deep and fundamental
    that nobody even has the idea of leaving the
    Union. Under these conditions, Berlin will be
    able to slow down the implementation of the
    steps Britain has hampered,
    namely:

  • registration of a pan-European migration
    policy;

  • creation of a single EU army;

  • Strengthening the integration of the
    budgets of the EU member states.
    It should also be noted that without the
    participation of London, the EU position in
    international negotiations will be more
    consolidated and unique, which will allow the
    EU over time to reconsider many of the
    previous agreements, based on the "special
    position" of Great Britain, making them much
    more beneficial for continental Europeans.
    It is also clear that the UK's withdrawal
    from the EU and the further consolidation of
    other members of the Union are likely to
    result in the cessation of the recruitment of
    new, poor members, which could be a bad
    news for Ukraine. Before united Europe will
    inevitably raise the question of how to prevent
    the withdrawal from the Union of other states?
    In this regard, it is likely that the Union will
    take measures to punish Britain in order to
    show the other countries that are waiting for
    them to exit. The exit from the EU makes
    sense if guaranteed a more prosperous life.
    However, if the British example demonstrates
    the opposite, then those who want to stand
    apart will greatly diminish. As for Ukraine, the
    success of breksit will create serious problems
    for it in the medium term. First of all, Ukraine
    will lose a strong ally with a tight anti-Russian
    position within the EU. Strengthening internal
    contradictions within the EU will distract
    Europeans from Ukrainian problems. Finally,
    the EU is likely to close the extension issue
    indefinitely [10].
    Brexit will have significant consequences
    not only for the UK and the EU but for other
    key players in the international arena,
    including the United States and Russia. The
    influence of the results of the British
    referendum will also be felt by Ukraine, which,
    in the context of the hybrid war with the
    Russian Federation, has been pursuing a
    consistent European integration policy for the
    last few years. Below, based on the opinions
    of recognized international experts, we will try
    to find out the possible external and internal
    political and economic implications of Brexit
    for Ukraine.
    In general, after the UK's exit, risks to
    remain indefinitely beyond the attention of the
    European Union and of Britain themselves
    increased. Andreas Umland, a political
    scientist and expert in Eastern Europe, said
    that "European politicians, diplomats,
    journalists and experts will be even more
    distracted by what is happening in Ukraine
    and the Russian-Ukrainian conflict" as a result
    of the Brexit referendum. "A significant part of
    future attention, including EU forces and
    resources, will be absorbed by building new
    relations between Britain and the EU," Umland
    said [11]. Undoubtedly, Brexit will form many
    internal problems for the European Union,
    which will mean that Ukraine may for somee disappear from the spotlight of its
    partners in the EU.
    There is no doubt that, with the release of
    the United Kingdom, Kyiv will lose some of the
    strong support for its European aspirations
    within the EU. Britain, as we know, was
    against the deepening of integration within
    the European Union, but supported its
    expansion at the expense of new members.
    The United Kingdom has long been one of the
    key players supporting the European
    aspirations of our state. In addition, Britain is
    one of the main forces in the European Union,
    which advocates the preservation of sanctions
    against Russia. The United Kingdom plays the
    role of a nucleus in the camp of European
    countries (Poland, the Baltic States, Romania,
    Bulgaria, Sweden), which are cautious about
    Russia after its aggression in Ukraine and are
    not going to make concessions about
    sanctions.
    According to G.Kukhaleishvili, Britain is the
    only European country that, in its authority
    and economic influence, can equitably enter
    into a debate with the Franco-German
    tandem, as well as with certain political circles
    of member states that question the
    expediency of continuing anti-Russian
    sanctions ( Italy, Greece, Slovakia). As a
    result, according to O.Riabchina, we will lose
    one of the strongest friends of Ukraine in the
    European Union, whose rigid position in
    counteracting Russian aggression often
    balances the moderate Franco-German
    position [1].
    As the diplomat, Maidan of Foreign Affairs
    expert O. Hara, Britain, as a strategic ally of
    the United States, played an important role in
    shaping the united position of Washington and
    Brussels on Russia's containment. Brexit,
    meanwhile, entrusts the fate of European
    sanctions to the Franco-German tandem,
    which reinforces the position of supporters of
    the "carrot policy". The French Senate, for
    example, recently spoke in favor of the
    phasing out of sanctions. And the Social
    Democratic Party of Germany has always been
    critical of the latter. So without scrupulous
    British intervention, the analyst concludes,
    Russia can quite possibly achieve, if not
    abolition, the weakening of sanctions.
    There are opposing views on this. So,
    according to expert internationalist A.Shelest,
    Brexit will not change the European Union's
    position on Russian aggression, and,
    moreover, will not affect the position of the
    UK, which was one of the strongest in the EU
    in supporting Ukraine. Even Russian experts
    are convinced that it is not worthwhile to
    overestimate Brexit's influence on changing
    the EU's attitude towards Russia. In particular,
    the latter may prove to be the only "threat"
    that will be able to rally countries within the
    European Union and become a kind of
    "anchor" for "pan-European identity".
    Therefore, the development of policy in this
    direction can be more likely to unite than to
    disassociate players in the European arena.


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