لخّصلي

خدمة تلخيص النصوص العربية أونلاين،قم بتلخيص نصوصك بضغطة واحدة من خلال هذه الخدمة

نتيجة التلخيص (50%)

foundation of the architecture of Western civilization and an important part
of our country's architectural heritage and image.Jefferson demonstrated this Renaissance preference in his design for the university's pavilion four.Vitruvius makes other observations about human proportions such as the length of a man's forearm is the same as the width of his chest and there's also equal to one fourth of his height and so on. These proportional relationships are analogous to the proportional systems of
classical architecture, which Vitruvius discusses at length.For example, let's look at just a small portion of Vitruvius's explanation of how to execute the Corinthian capital ,
"different portions of this capital should be fixed as follows that the height of the capital, including its abacus be equivalent to the thickness of the base of the column. Let the breadth of the Abacus be proportion so that diagonals drawn from one
corner of it to the other shall be twice the height of the capitals, which will give the proper breadth to each face of the Abacus" and so on for a page or two more.Below the crown molding,
we have a narrow fascia and the underside of the fascia is the soffit soffit derived from the Latin word [suffigo], which means to fasten beneath the underside of a window or door head is also
called a soffit.Starting at the top, we have crown molding, fascia, soffit, bed moldings, frieze, taenia, and a one fascia architrave.The rules for proportion in classical architecture were worked out by trial and
error over many centuries; rules that made buildings visually satisfying.Design connoisseurship is thus essential in determining what is worthy of emulation or what may not be. A masterpiece such as Palladio's Palazzo Chiericati has much to tell us. Aspiring practitioners of classical architecture, thus have to be familiar with the languages,
vocabulary and grammar in order to apply it effectively in one's own works.The Institute of Classical Architecture and Art advocates for and teaches the use of the classical language.Classical architecture is all around us.
We live in a time when educated people are taught very little about architecture.The Renaissance also kindled interest in ancient ruins,
but Renaissance architects were at a loss on how to design new buildings using or reusing the classical language.Vitruvius was aware of Tuscan architecture that is the buildings erected by the ancient Etruscans.At the top we have an S shape molding, originally serving as a gutter and commonly called the crown molding.In his treatise, Vitruvius described the rules for governing the types of columns or orders, specifically the three orders that the Romans acquired from the Greeks.The discovery was an ancient Roman treatise on architecture by an architect
named Vitruvius Pollio who lived during the time of Caesar Augustus.But since the Etruscan buildings were wooden structures and it all disappeared by Vitruvius's time,
he didn't include the Tuscan order in the architectural cannon, nor did he consider the composite to be a separate order.Here we see crown molding, fascia, soffit and bed moldings just as in the Tuscan order.This church has classical columns and moldings, but it's builders are playing the game without knowing the rules.Like the Roman works, the temple's dominant feature is its columns, but we also see that the temple is structurally very elementary,
simple post and beam construction, something vertical holding up something horizontal.This early medieval arcade is made of salvaged ancient columns and capitals with no attempt to match them correctly with no understanding of classical design principles.The use of classical columns or orders to give character and expression to
buildings is seen in thousands of examples.Vitruvius also discusses how you can give a specific character to a temple by the spacing of its columns.With classical architecture, we learned from the buildings of the past.The most important insight we have for Vitruvius is his definition of the three essentials of a work of architecture firmitas, utilitas, and venustas,
firmness, commodity, delight.However, Vitruvius maintains that the most visually satisfying spacing is what he called eustyle.They draw the eye up. The moldings above each row of columns emphasize the building's horizontality they lead the eye around the building and visually tie it together.This is an illustration from a 17th century edition of Vitruvius's, treatise by French architect Claude Perrault, who supplied illustrations for his edition.For Vitruvius, eustyle meant that the center bay of a temple portico should be slightly wider
than the base on either side, giving emphasis to the entrance.Beneath the soffit, we have some moldings that collectively form what we call the bed moldings.Having dealt with the elements of the column and entablature let's see if a typical classical building now looks more familiar to us.
Can we now better read this Charleston church?Also, since the crown molding was originally a gutter, there would be no need for a gutter here since little water would collect in that area.Columns closely spaced, make a temple appear uninviting.So we get the five orders of architecture, the fundamentals, or the starting point of classical design.The columns, or really half columns, emphasize the building's verticality.Such lengthy detailed instructions at last gave the Renaissance architects the key to classical design.So if the architrave is the chief beam or the chief structural element of the entablature, the architrave can be either plain or composed of two or three overlapping bands called fascia.The entablatures of each order, or what the columns hold up are generally around two modules tall.The columns of each order generally range from seven to 10 modules tall.This type of architecture inspired numerous great spaces,
particularly in the decades around 1900 in what we call the American Renaissance.He gave these Roman Doric columns bases.Vitruvius
states that a well proportioned human standing straight with arms stretched perpendicular to his torso, describes a perfect square and with arms stretch diagonally upward and legs apart,
he describes a perfect circle using the navel as center point.Eustyle is not often used on Corinthian porticoes, but we sometimes find it in very sophisticated classical works.This illustration is from that same French edition of Vitruvius's treatise.The Renaissance architects felt it one of the best ancient examples of the Roman Doric order was the lower level of the theater of Marcellus in Rome.The columns and their moldings are added to give the building expression, to serve as visual control, to make it speak.Many of America's great public buildings such as our nation's Capitol are
expressed in this language,
also so are many institutional buildings such as The Metropolitan Museum and
many of our older residential neighborhoods such as Monument Avenue in my hometown of Richmond, Virginia.Scores of additions of Vitruvius's treatise in many languages have since been published.This ancient monumental architecture has inspired works great and small from the Renaissance to the present.Ancient Roman Doric columns may or may not have a base.Greek Doric columns as we will see, never ever have a base.These cornice moldings were ultimately based on wooden construction and they serve to encase the framing members between the roof framing and the top of the
wall as in this demonstration of a colonial American vernacular structure.A defining feature of a Doric entablature is the frieze.The group of moldings at the top collectively make up the cornice.Finally at the base of the column is a large half round molding called the
torus.Notice in the pediment, the front gable,
that the crown molding is not carried across the base as a pediment.A work of architecture must be firm, that is structurally sound.Nevertheless, the Renaissance architects considered both the Tuscan and the composite to be legitimate orders in their own right and added them to the Canon.Nearly all subsequent architectural treatises used Vitruvius as their authority.Renaissance architects, however, believed that the direct column should always have a base.Below the cornice moldings, which I'll talk about in a moment, is a wide band called the frieze.The term architrave is composed of two words, arc, a Greek prefix, meaning chief as in Archangel or chief angel and trave from the Latin word trabes, meaning wooden beam.Also such great temples were primarily an architecture of the exterior.The entablature is divided into three main parts,
the cornice, frieze, and architrave.The theater got pretty beat up over the centuries, but enough of it was intact for a 17th century French architect Freart de Chambray to record its orders in his book on Roman architecture.Beneath the abacus encircling the capital is a quarter round circular molding called the echinus.Palladio applied eustyle spacing for the portico of the Villa Emo.Now when we look again at the forum, we note that not all the columns are structural.The theater's Doric order became a prime model for the Roman Doric order.The S shaped curve in the crown molding is also called a Cyma curve.Wider space columns are more inviting.The columns on the arch of Septimius Severus on the right and the tabularium in
the upper left are not structural.Vitruvius's texts survived as a medieval copy with no illustrations.Nearly all Renaissance and later treatises show the Doric order with a base.We may not know why a building is beautiful, but we know beauty when we see it. This simple courthouse,
was designed by builders who had worked for Thomas Jefferson and from whom they learned the proper use of the classical vocabulary.We see here how different architects have determined what should be the ideal proportions of a Doric order.Most of them have included illustrations based on Vitruvius's written descriptions.Well, from the Greeks, the temple of Hera, in Paestum in Southern Italy dates some 500 years earlier than the forum's
buildings.If you look closely at this illustration, you can see that this center Bay is slightly wider.Vitruvius stated that the module is the basis for the proportioning of an order.At the top of the column shaft is the capital, from the Latin word caput meaning head.The torus is set on the column's bottom element, a square block called the plinth from the Greek plinthos,
the word for a brick which it resembles.The classical embellishments of this college library serve no other purpose than
to lend the building a dignity of appearance to signal that it houses an important activity.A fancier term for the crown molding.You may know nothing about architecture, but you would likely say,
this is an okay looking building.Vitruvius makes many important observations.The Tuscan.


النص الأصلي

foundation of the architecture of Western civilization and an important part
of our country's architectural heritage and image.
Many of America's great public buildings such as our nation's Capitol are
expressed in this language,
also so are many institutional buildings such as The Metropolitan Museum and
many of our older residential neighborhoods such as Monument Avenue in my hometown of Richmond, Virginia. Classical architecture is all around us.
We live in a time when educated people are taught very little about architecture. Most can't really see or appreciate a magnificent classical work such as the Library of Congress. So I hope that at the end of this series you will have a more informed eye and
will be able to read a classical building such as the Library of Congress, just like a book. With classical architecture, we learned from the buildings of the past. They are our design resources.


Design connoisseurship is thus essential in determining what is worthy of emulation or what may not be. A masterpiece such as Palladio's Palazzo Chiericati has much to tell us. Aspiring practitioners of classical architecture, thus have to be familiar with the languages,
vocabulary and grammar in order to apply it effectively in one's own works. So where does this language come from? Well, from the ancient world, of course.
We're seeing an image of the Roman forum as it might've looked originally. This ancient monumental architecture has inspired works great and small from the Renaissance to the present. However,
with the fall of Rome, the rules for classical design were forgotten. Buildings still got built and many of them were built with architectural fragments quarried from ancient structures.
This early medieval arcade is made of salvaged ancient columns and capitals with no attempt to match them correctly with no understanding of classical design principles. This arcade is architecturally illiterate.
Regrettably, such illiteracy persists today. This church has classical columns and moldings, but it's builders are playing the game without knowing the rules. It just doesn't look right.
The Institute of Classical Architecture and Art advocates for and teaches the use of the classical language. To do that, we have to understand the language's basic elements. The relearning of ancient Roman culture occurred in the Renaissance.
It began with the study of Roman literature, philosophy, history, and sculpture. The Renaissance also kindled interest in ancient ruins,
but Renaissance architects were at a loss on how to design new buildings using or reusing the classical language. That is until an important discovery. The discovery was an ancient Roman treatise on architecture by an architect
named Vitruvius Pollio who lived during the time of Caesar Augustus. Vitruvius's texts survived as a medieval copy with no illustrations.
It was discovered in 1414 by Vatican archivist in a monastery in Switzerland. The treatise, titled "The Ten Books on Architecture" covered a number of subjects, materials, construction,
hydraulics and acoustics among others, but most importantly, it contained an explanation of the fundamentals of classical design. These included detailed explanations of the elements and proportional systems of
the orders of architecture, the different types of columns. Vistruvius's treatise was transcribed and published in 1486 first in Latin and later in Italian.
It quickly became the ultimate authority for classical design, a veritable how to book. For example, let's look at just a small portion of Vitruvius's explanation of how to execute the Corinthian capital ,
"different portions of this capital should be fixed as follows that the height of the capital, including its abacus be equivalent to the thickness of the base of the column. Let the breadth of the Abacus be proportion so that diagonals drawn from one
corner of it to the other shall be twice the height of the capitals, which will give the proper breadth to each face of the Abacus" and so on for a page or two more.
Such lengthy detailed instructions at last gave the Renaissance architects the key to classical design. Nearly all subsequent architectural treatises used Vitruvius as their authority.
Scores of additions of Vitruvius's treatise in many languages have since been published. Most of them have included illustrations based on Vitruvius's written descriptions.
Inexpensive reprints of Vitruvius are easily available today. Vitruvius makes many important observations. I will mention three. First he talks about harmonic proportions, the idea that beauty derives from a harmony of parts.
This is an illustration from a 17th century edition of Vitruvius's, treatise by French architect Claude Perrault, who supplied illustrations for his edition. Vitruvius
states that a well proportioned human standing straight with arms stretched perpendicular to his torso, describes a perfect square and with arms stretch diagonally upward and legs apart,
he describes a perfect circle using the navel as center point. You may be more familiar with Leonardo da Vinci's depiction of the Vitruvian man.
Vitruvius makes other observations about human proportions such as the length of a man's forearm is the same as the width of his chest and there's also equal to one fourth of his height and so on. These proportional relationships are analogous to the proportional systems of
classical architecture, which Vitruvius discusses at length. Vitruvius also discusses how you can give a specific character to a temple by the spacing of its columns.
Columns closely spaced, make a temple appear uninviting. Wider space columns are more inviting. This illustration is from that same French edition of Vitruvius's treatise.
However, Vitruvius maintains that the most visually satisfying spacing is what he called eustyle. Eu means good, as in euphoric, feeling good.
Style is another word for a column as in stylus, a cylindrical object. For Vitruvius, eustyle meant that the center bay of a temple portico should be slightly wider
than the base on either side, giving emphasis to the entrance. If you look closely at this illustration, you can see that this center Bay is slightly wider.
This principle was followed in many ancient temples such as the Pantheon. Look carefully and you can see that the Pantheon's center bay is slightly wider.
Andrea Palladio noted this in his measured plan of the Pantheon portico. The center bay is nine and a fraction Vincentian feet wide and the flanking base are eight and a fraction Vincentian feet wide.
Eustyle spacing can also correct an optical illusion. Look carefully at the portico of Monticello. Doesn't it appear that the center bay is slightly narrower than the bays on
either side. It's not. The bays are equally spaced. It's an optical illusion. Palladio applied eustyle spacing for the portico of the Villa Emo.
The center bay is wider, but the portico looks perfectly balanced. We have a similar eustyle Tuscan portico on an American house. Palladio also applied eustyle spacing in the porticoes of the Villa Rotonda.
The entrance is emphasized by the wider center bay. Eustyle is not often used on Corinthian porticoes, but we sometimes find it in very sophisticated classical works.
The center bay of the national archives is slightly wider. The most important insight we have for Vitruvius is his definition of the three essentials of a work of architecture firmitas, utilitas, and venustas,
firmness, commodity, delight. A work of architecture must be firm, that is structurally sound. It must be commodious.
That means it must adequately serve the function for which it was designed and it must offer visual delight. It must be beautiful. Okay. Let's look again at this scene of the forum. We see lots of columns.
Where did the Romans get this type of construction? Well, from the Greeks, the temple of Hera, in Paestum in Southern Italy dates some 500 years earlier than the forum's
buildings. Like the Roman works, the temple's dominant feature is its columns, but we also see that the temple is structurally very elementary,
simple post and beam construction, something vertical holding up something horizontal. Also such great temples were primarily an architecture of the exterior.
Generally only the priests went inside. Religious ceremonies of sacrifice were normally held outside in front. We'll take up the special polities of Greek classicism in the next session,
but in contrast to the Greeks, the Romans were great engineers. They were the original interior decorators. This restored view of the interior of Rome's basilica of Constantine displays an
extraordinarily rich interior. Basilicas served as public gathering places and courtrooms. It was important for them to have grand interiors.
We also see in this image huge round arches, vaulted ceilings and a semi dome. They were Roman developments, architectural forms made possible by an important invention- cast concrete.
The outstanding example of ancient cast concrete construction is the dome of the Pantheon the dominant element of one of the most sublime spaces ever created,
a triumph of engineering and design. The panels, or coffers in the dome, were not only decorative, they serve to lighten the weight of the dome. This type of architecture inspired numerous great spaces,
particularly in the decades around 1900 in what we call the American Renaissance. A prodigious example is Washington's union station, a masterpiece of Roman classicism.
Now when we look again at the forum, we note that not all the columns are structural. The columns on the arch of Septimius Severus on the right and the tabularium in
the upper left are not structural. They are decorative. Their purpose was to add character to their buildings. This phenomenon is best expressed in the Colosseum. The Colosseum's arches and vaults are its structure.
The columns and their moldings are added to give the building expression, to serve as visual control, to make it speak. The columns, or really half columns, emphasize the building's verticality.
They draw the eye up. The moldings above each row of columns emphasize the building's horizontality they lead the eye around the building and visually tie it together.
The use of classical columns or orders to give character and expression to
buildings is seen in thousands of examples. The classical embellishments of this college library serve no other purpose than
to lend the building a dignity of appearance to signal that it houses an important activity. Strip off the embellishments and the building would resemble a power plant.
It would have little visual delight. Thomas Jefferson said that man has an innate sense of beauty. We may not know why a building is beautiful, but we know beauty when we see it. This simple courthouse,
was designed by builders who had worked for Thomas Jefferson and from whom they learned the proper use of the classical vocabulary. You may know nothing about architecture, but you would likely say,
this is an okay looking building. There's something right about it. Likewise, you may know nothing about architecture, but you would say, this building is funny looking. It just doesn't look right.
Pretty squat. Well, let's try something skinnier. Well, this doesn't look right either. This is architectural illiteracy. The rules for proportion in classical architecture were worked out by trial and
error over many centuries; rules that made buildings visually satisfying. This building was beautiful 2,500 years ago.
It still is today. In his treatise, Vitruvius described the rules for governing the types of columns or orders, specifically the three orders that the Romans acquired from the Greeks. We know them of course, as the Doric, Ionic, and the Corinthian.
Vitruvius was aware of Tuscan architecture that is the buildings erected by the ancient Etruscans. But since the Etruscan buildings were wooden structures and it all disappeared by Vitruvius's time,
he didn't include the Tuscan order in the architectural cannon, nor did he consider the composite to be a separate order. The Romans regarded the composite as an enriched version of the Corinthian
order. Nevertheless, the Renaissance architects considered both the Tuscan and the composite to be legitimate orders in their own right and added them to the Canon.
So we get the five orders of architecture, the fundamentals, or the starting point of classical design. Vitruvius stated that the module is the basis for the proportioning of an order.
The module is the diameter of the lower portion of the column shaft. The module is the standard by which the rest of the building's parts are measured. Each part is so many modules or fractions of modules.
The columns of each order generally range from seven to 10 modules tall. The entablatures of each order, or what the columns hold up are generally around two modules tall.
Each order has its own system of modular proportions. This illustration shows fairly typical modular systems. However, they can vary.
[inaudible]. We see here how different architects have determined what should be the ideal proportions of a Doric order. Each is different, but all within a similar range.
It's a matter of personal preference. Some people prefer Palladio's proportions. Some prefer Gibbs's. The proportions vary for the other orders as well, depending on which architect's treatise you are using.
So let's now look closely at each of the orders and familiarize ourselves with their various components. We'll start with a detailed look at the simplest order. The Tuscan. Now to have architectural structure,
you have to have something vertical holding up something horizontal. The vertical support is the column. The thing being held up is collectively called the entablature. The term
entablature comes from the Latin word to [tabula], meaning a board or plank from which we get the Italian tavola or table. The entablature is divided into three main parts,
the cornice, frieze, and architrave. The group of moldings at the top collectively make up the cornice. The term cornice derives from the Greek word Coronas, meaning curved. That's where we get the word crown.
Below the cornice moldings, which I'll talk about in a moment, is a wide band called the frieze. We get the word frieze from the ancient area of Asia minor called Phrygia.
Phrygia was noted for making richly decorated long bands of cloth, hence frieze. Below the frieze is another band called the architrave.
The term architrave is composed of two words, arc, a Greek prefix, meaning chief as in Archangel or chief angel and trave from the Latin word trabes, meaning wooden beam.
So if the architrave is the chief beam or the chief structural element of the entablature, the architrave can be either plain or composed of two or three overlapping bands called fascia. Fascia is a Latin word for a band or a bandage.
We have two fascias here. Okay, let's now return to the cornice. At the top we have an S shape molding, originally serving as a gutter and commonly called the crown molding.
You can buy yards of crown molding at any building supply company. The S shaped curve in the crown molding is also called a Cyma curve. Cyma comes from the Greek word cuma,
meaning curvy or billlowy as in Cumulus clouds, which are billowy. A fancier term for the crown molding. is cymatium. Below the crown molding,
we have a narrow fascia and the underside of the fascia is the soffit soffit derived from the Latin word [suffigo], which means to fasten beneath the underside of a window or door head is also
called a soffit. From [soffigo]. We also get the word suffix, which is an ending fastened to a word. Beneath the soffit, we have some moldings that collectively form what we call the bed moldings.
Thank of them is being embedded beneath the soffit. The Tuscan bed moldings are the simplest. The top one is a convex quarter round called an ovolo as in oval or ovum,
meaning egg. An ovalo is sorta egg shaped. It is supported by a cavetto, a concave molding. The term comes from the Latin Cavus, which means hollowed out as in cave.
These cornice moldings were ultimately based on wooden construction and they serve to encase the framing members between the roof framing and the top of the
wall as in this demonstration of a colonial American vernacular structure. Here we see crown molding, fascia, soffit and bed moldings just as in the Tuscan order.
Now separating the frieze from the architrave is a very narrow projecting van called the taenia, which is the Greek word for a ribbon. It's also the ancient name for a sweatband as well as the medical term for a
tapeworm. The Egyptians wrap their mummies in yards of taenia. That is ribbon, not tapeworms. Alright, we've covered the entablature. Let's now look at the column.
At the top of the column shaft is the capital, from the Latin word caput meaning head. It's where we get the term decapitate.
At the top of the capital is a feature resembling a square board called the abacus. Now we know that an abacus is a bunch of beads on a frame that people use for counting or figuring, but in ancient times,
Greek students were given a square board on which they sprinkled sand or dust in which they used their fingers to write or figure. That board was called an abacus. It comes from the ancient word, meaning sand or dust.
So an abacus is something you figure on the top piece of the capital resembled that board, hence its name. That's the way we named things. They resemble familiar objects as with a computer mouse.
Beneath the abacus encircling the capital is a quarter round circular molding called the echinus. The word derives from the Greek word achinos, which means a sea urchin. As you could see,
the echinus in a Greek capital is more elliptical and does resemble the shape of a sea urchin's shell. Below the echinus is the neck and then a half round molding called the astragal.
It comes from the Greek word astragalos, the term for the ankle bone, the half round protrusion on either side of your ankle. You may have noticed some plain thin moldings on most of these features. They are called fillets,
which are common on Roman orders but not so much on Greek ones. The word comes from the Latin fillum, meaning thread, so fillum means something very thin as in camera film or slick on water or a
thin piece of meat. Finally at the base of the column is a large half round molding called the
torus. Torus is the Latin word for muscle. The torus on a column base resembled a swelling bicep muscle. The torus is set on the column's bottom element, a square block called the plinth from the Greek plinthos,
the word for a brick which it resembles. Having dealt with the elements of the column and entablature let's see if a typical classical building now looks more familiar to us.
Can we now better read this Charleston church? Starting at the top, we have crown molding, fascia, soffit, bed moldings, frieze, taenia, and a one fascia architrave.
In the capital we have the abacus, echinus, and astragal, and at the base, the torus and plinth. Notice in the pediment, the front gable,
that the crown molding is not carried across the base as a pediment. Why? Because it looks better that way. Also, since the crown molding was originally a gutter, there would be no need for a gutter here since little water would collect in that area.
What happens when you ignore this rule about the pediment? Well, it doesn't look right. That's just one of the many rules ignored in this illiterate building.
The next order to examine is the Doric order. It's named for the Dorians. The Renaissance architects felt it one of the best ancient examples of the Roman Doric order was the lower level of the theater of Marcellus in Rome. Marcus,
Claudius Marcellus was a favorite nephew and son-in-law of Caesar Augustus. He died at age 19. This theater, which could hold some 20,000 people, was named in his honor.
The theater got pretty beat up over the centuries, but enough of it was intact for a 17th century French architect Fréart de Chambray to record its orders in his book on Roman architecture.
The theater's Doric order became a prime model for the Roman Doric order. Note that the Doric capital is similar to the Tuscan. Note also that the column has no base.
Ancient Roman Doric columns may or may not have a base. The ancients considered the Doric to be a masculine order and didn't need a base, like real guys don't wear shoes.
Greek Doric columns as we will see, never ever have a base. Thomas Jefferson admired the theater of Marcellus's Doric order and use the order on pavilion 10 at the University of Virginia. It's a very strong order and note no column bases,
that doesn't mean it's Greek. It's Roman here. Renaissance architects, however, believed that the direct column should always have a base. Nearly all Renaissance and later treatises show the Doric order with a base.
Jefferson demonstrated this Renaissance preference in his design for the university's pavilion four. He gave these Roman Doric columns bases.
A defining feature of a Doric entablature is the frieze. It displays triglyphs and metopes. Triglyphs are the brackets showing grooves or glyphs.
Now we see only two glyphs in each triglyph. Why call them tri or three? Well, note the half glyphs in either side of each triglyph. Put the two halves together and you would have the third glyph.
The spaces between the triglyphs are called metopes. Metope is a combination of two Greek words. Meta means in between as in metamorphosis, an in between state and Ope

تلخيص النصوص العربية والإنجليزية أونلاين

تلخيص النصوص آلياً

تلخيص النصوص العربية والإنجليزية اليا باستخدام الخوارزميات الإحصائية وترتيب وأهمية الجمل في النص

تحميل التلخيص

يمكنك تحميل ناتج التلخيص بأكثر من صيغة متوفرة مثل PDF أو ملفات Word أو حتي نصوص عادية

رابط دائم

يمكنك مشاركة رابط التلخيص بسهولة حيث يحتفظ الموقع بالتلخيص لإمكانية الإطلاع عليه في أي وقت ومن أي جهاز ماعدا الملخصات الخاصة

مميزات أخري

نعمل علي العديد من الإضافات والمميزات لتسهيل عملية التلخيص وتحسينها


آخر التلخيصات

The transitiona...

The transitional epithelium cells stretch readily in order to accommodate fluctuation of volume of t...

المرأة انسان كا...

المرأة انسان كامل الملكات والقدرات العقلية و الخلقية، وان كانت ارق تكوينا من الناحية البدنية، وهذا ي...

الركن الأول: حر...

الركن الأول: حرية التملك ويطلق عليها أيضاً مبدأ الملكية الخاصَّة بشكل غير محدود، فالملكية الخاصَّة ل...

ليست القيم الرو...

ليست القيم الروحيه في الاسلام مقابلة للمادة، » لابد اذا ان ترتبط هذه القيم بواقع الحياة، وإن يكون من...

تصر حماس على ال...

تصر حماس على الإفراج عن أسرى تعتقد أن "صفقة التبادل فرصة نادرة لهم من أجل التحرر من سجون الاحتلال"، ...

Stand behind th...

Stand behind the person and wrap your arms around their waist under the ribcage (Figure a). 1 Put yo...

وضع مهندس مدينة...

وضع مهندس مدينة الإسكندرية وليام ماكلين عام 1918 أول خطة لتنفيذها في مدينة القدس مـن اجل التحكم في ع...

أمر الله تعالى ...

أمر الله تعالى نبيه موسى عليه السلام بأن يحمل رسالته إلى قوم فرعون ويدعوهم إلى توحيد الله والإيمان ب...

قال تعالى: الل...

قال تعالى: اللَّهُ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الْحَيُّ الْقَيُّومُ لَا تَأْخُذُهُ سِنَةٌ وَلَا نَوْمٌ [...

الرياضة هي مجهو...

الرياضة هي مجهود جسدي عادي أو مهارة تُمَارَس بموجب قواعد مُتفق عليها بهدف الترفيه أو المنافَسة أو ال...

Ultrasound has ...

Ultrasound has an excellent safety record. It has been used in obstetrics for five decades with no p...

- Most Android ...

- Most Android devices support NFC, which allows electronic devices to easily interact across short ...