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KEYWORDS
Clinical aromatherapy Clinical management Best practice model History
Theoretic frameworks Plant sources Safety case reports Pathologic response
KEY POINTS
Aromatherapy is an alternative medicine or integrative therapy that works with conven
tional medicine treatment.Aroma
therapy emerged and was embraced as an alternative medicine for many medical
a Mayo Clinic Hospital, Apheresis Department, 5777E Mayo Boulevard, Phoenix, AZ 85054,
USA; b Austin Peay State University, School of Nursing, McCord Building, Clarksville, TN
37043, USA
* Corresponding author.German HieronymusBraunschweigasurgeonandbotanist,wroteabookon
distillationofoilsfromplantsthatincluded25oils
France In1919,Gattefosse',afamouschemist,wasburnedinanexplosioninhis
laboratory.Thewoundsbecameinfected.Woundrinsingwithessential
oilseradicatedtheinfection.Hecoinedtheterm,aromatherapy,andwas
knownforthemedicaluseofessentialoilswiththeirantibacterialand
healingpropertiesofessentialoils.The
National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health
developed categories for these therapies--mind-body therapy, biologically based
practices, manipulative and body-based practices, energy medicine, and whole med
ical systems, suchasAyurvedicmedicine andtraditional Chinesemedicine.3,4 Nursing
health care aromatherapy falls into the category of mind-body therapy.Clinical aromatherapy can be beneficial for symptom management for pain, nausea, vom
iting, preoperative anxiety, critical care, well-being, anxiety, depression, stress, insomnia,
respiratory, dementia, and oncology.E-mail address: [email protected]
Nurs Clin N Am 55 (2020) 489-504
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cnur.2020.06.015
nursing.theclinics.com
0029-6465/20/Published by Elsevier Inc.The US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) monitors unsafe
products.11 The CSPC enforces federal laws to protect consumers against unreason
able injury and death from products.12 The following are examples of how these 2 fed
eral organizations monitor essential oils.Essential oils come from seeds, stems, leaves, needles, petals, flowers, rinds and fruits,
woods and resins, roots and rhizomes, and grasses.Westerners
found many alternative methods to treat medical conditions, such as pain, anxiety,
depression, and insomnia,withscented oilsfromvarious plantsources.The pendulum
began to swing from Western medication to an Eastern holistic approach.Table 1 sum
marizes major historical timelines of countries and cultural influences, validating
aromatherapy as medical, clinical, and holistic.REGULATION GUIDELINES FOR ESSENTIAL OILS
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the United States guidelines classify
essential oils for aromatherapy as cosmetics, because they are not drugs for treating
or prevention of a disease.10 Therefore, aromatherapy essential oils are not regulated
by the FDA.Imbalancehaveillness
Acupuncture,cupping,herbalteas,powdersfromplants,meditation,and
herbalburningnearskin
Greece TheophrastusinheritedthebotanicgardenfromAristotle.Hewroteabook
aboutspecificusesandformulasforaromatics.Case reports are presented for considerations regarding flammability, elder and child
safety, dermatitis, phototoxicity, oral toxicity, and eye safety, including critical analysis
and intervention.Aromatherapy regulation of
guidelines, plant sources for aromatic oils, and safe use of essential oils in symptom
management in clinical aromatherapy is reviewed.According to the
National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Integrative
Health, Americans spend more than $30.2 billion annually on this therapy.1 It is pre
dicted the global market will grow in spending to $5 trillion by 2050.2 Aromatherapy
also is called integrative medicine.3 It is especially important for frontline nurses to un
derstand the difference between alternative therapy and integrative therapy.The
outcome from the administration of essential oil can be measured with a pre anxiety
level and post level of anxiety to determine if the essential oil is effective.4,5
WORLDWIDE HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF AROMATHERAPY
Aromatherapy has been used for thousands of years.NURSING THEORISTS SUPPORT FOR HEALTH CARE AROMATHERAPY
Historical evolution of medical, clinical, and holistic uses of essential oils is embraced
by 8 major nursing theorists.Their theoretic frameworks and concepts reflect the use
of clinical aromatherapy as a patient-centered and holistic approach for balancing
physical health, spiritual needs and well-being.Needtoregainbalancebyinternalpurificationsfollowedbyspecialdiet,
herbalremedies,massagetherapy,yoga,andmeditation
China ShenNung'smanuscriptlisted350plantsin2800BC.TheFoodandDrugAdministration ofthe UnitedStates guidelines classify essential oils as
cosmetics because they are not drugs for treating or prevention of disease.Sadly, over time, opioids and antianxiety medications were abused, with the result of
these medications purchased from drug dealers, overdosing, and death.Nursing health
care uses essential oils to complement therapeutic interventions, decrease anxiety.Essential oils leaders emerged, sup
porting aromatherapy as a credible therapy for mind, body, and spirit.Arabia IbnSina,anArabicphysician,usedaromatics,suchassenna,camphor,and
cloves,formedicaltreatment.It was common for pain to be treated with various
levels of opioids and receiving prescriptions for medications with each physician visit.Yoga, Pilates, mindfulness
meditation, acupuncture, and scented oils were used with massage.In alter
native medicine, the therapy works as an addition to conventional medical treatment,
whereas integrative therapy is solo and replaces any conventional medical care.Table1
Historicalevolution
Country CulturalTherapy
Egyptian
culture
Resins,balms,andfragrantoils
PapyrusEberswroteafamousmanuscriptaboutaromaticmedicine.ThefirstprivateapothecaryshopopenedinBaghdad.withdispensing
medicines.suchastinctures,suppositories, inhalants,andpills.It
is expected that the plant-based essential oil applications can be measured, such as a
preanxiety symptoms, interventions with essential oil, and postanxiety symptoms.Hippocrates, father of modern
medicine, advocated the use of aromatherapy due to his belief that aromatic baths
and scented massage were key to good health.The 8 theorists' embracement con
firms health care aromatherapy is a credible alternative method (Table 2).Kyphiformulacontained16plantsandwasusedforsleepandanxiety,to
sootheskin,andasanantidoteforsnakebite.Hebecamethefatherof
botany.Credibility is seen
in the historical evolution and nursing theorist support.INTRODUCTION
The Western perspective on health care has been focused on medications for treat
ment of health care conditions.Suggestions are recommended
for a best practice model for clinical aromatherapy.CLINICAL AROMATHERAPY
Aromatherapy is a fast-growing complementary therapy worldwide.Iraq Askeletonwasfound30,000yearsagowithconcentrationofextractedplant
essentialoils.TraditionalChinesemedicine
Basedonharmonyenergyofyin-yang
Oppositesbalanceiskeytohealth.The federal
government and states stepped in, passing laws monitoring prescriptions written for
opioids; therefore, a search for alternative medicine began.This article investigates the use of clinical aromatherapy.India TheAyurvedanaturalsystemofmedicinewasbasedondiseaseduetoan
imbalanceofstressinaperson'sconsciousness.PedaniusDioscorideswroteDeMateriaMedicacovering700plants,
includingaromatics.Roseororangeblossomwasusedasflavortomedicine.Thisledtothe
manufacturingofmedicine.JeanValnet,anarmyphysician,wrotethefirstaromatherapybookbya
doctor.Alternative methods
were found in the Eastern perspective on health care.Thisisbelievedtobearound2800BC.Indianshamansareknownasperfumeros,fromscentsofplants.Hippocrateswroteaboutaromaticbathsandantibacterialpropertiesand
urgedpeopletocarryaromaticplantsforprotection.Inhaledhenbanewasusedasanesthetic.Topicalsugarwasusedtostop
bleeding.490
Farrar & Farrar
conditions.Ayurvedicphysiciansarecalledholymen.Chineseculturestillembracesherbalmedicine.Pre-Christianeraemergedwiththebeliefthatessentialoilswerepagan.In
response,PopeGregorytheGreatpassedalawbanningallaromatics.WorksofGalenandHippocratesweresmuggledtoSyriaforsafekeeping.Medicalaromatherapyemergedinthethirdcentury.ShirleyPriceauthoredAromatherapyforHealthcareProfessionals.Sheis
knownforclinicaluseofessentialoils.


النص الأصلي

KEYWORDS
Clinical aromatherapy Clinical management Best practice model History
Theoretic frameworks Plant sources Safety case reports Pathologic response
KEY POINTS
Aromatherapy is an alternative medicine or integrative therapy that works with conven
tional medicine treatment.
TheFoodandDrugAdministration ofthe UnitedStates guidelines classify essential oils as
cosmetics because they are not drugs for treating or prevention of disease.
Essential oils come from seeds, stems, leaves, needles, petals, flowers, rinds and fruits,
woods and resins, roots and rhizomes, and grasses.
Case reports are presented for considerations regarding flammability, elder and child
safety, dermatitis, phototoxicity, oral toxicity, and eye safety, including critical analysis
and intervention.
Clinical aromatherapy can be beneficial for symptom management for pain, nausea, vom
iting, preoperative anxiety, critical care, well-being, anxiety, depression, stress, insomnia,
respiratory, dementia, and oncology.
INTRODUCTION
The Western perspective on health care has been focused on medications for treat
ment of health care conditions. It was common for pain to be treated with various
levels of opioids and receiving prescriptions for medications with each physician visit.
Sadly, over time, opioids and antianxiety medications were abused, with the result of
these medications purchased from drug dealers, overdosing, and death. The federal
government and states stepped in, passing laws monitoring prescriptions written for
opioids; therefore, a search for alternative medicine began. Alternative methods
were found in the Eastern perspective on health care. Yoga, Pilates, mindfulness
meditation, acupuncture, and scented oils were used with massage. Westerners
found many alternative methods to treat medical conditions, such as pain, anxiety,
depression, and insomnia,withscented oilsfromvarious plantsources.The pendulum
began to swing from Western medication to an Eastern holistic approach. Aroma
therapy emerged and was embraced as an alternative medicine for many medical
a Mayo Clinic Hospital, Apheresis Department, 5777E Mayo Boulevard, Phoenix, AZ 85054,
USA; b Austin Peay State University, School of Nursing, McCord Building, Clarksville, TN
37043, USA



  • Corresponding author.
    E-mail address: [email protected]
    Nurs Clin N Am 55 (2020) 489–504
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cnur.2020.06.015
    nursing.theclinics.com
    0029-6465/20/Published by Elsevier Inc.
    490
    Farrar & Farrar
    conditions. This article investigates the use of clinical aromatherapy. Credibility is seen
    in the historical evolution and nursing theorist support. Aromatherapy regulation of
    guidelines, plant sources for aromatic oils, and safe use of essential oils in symptom
    management in clinical aromatherapy is reviewed. Suggestions are recommended
    for a best practice model for clinical aromatherapy.
    CLINICAL AROMATHERAPY
    Aromatherapy is a fast-growing complementary therapy worldwide. According to the
    National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Integrative
    Health, Americans spend more than $30.2 billion annually on this therapy.1 It is pre
    dicted the global market will grow in spending to $5 trillion by 2050.2 Aromatherapy
    also is called integrative medicine.3 It is especially important for frontline nurses to un
    derstand the difference between alternative therapy and integrative therapy. In alter
    native medicine, the therapy works as an addition to conventional medical treatment,
    whereas integrative therapy is solo and replaces any conventional medical care. The
    National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health
    developed categories for these therapies—mind-body therapy, biologically based
    practices, manipulative and body-based practices, energy medicine, and whole med
    ical systems, suchasAyurvedicmedicine andtraditional Chinesemedicine.3,4 Nursing
    health care aromatherapy falls into the category of mind-body therapy. Nursing health
    care uses essential oils to complement therapeutic interventions, decrease anxiety. It
    is expected that the plant-based essential oil applications can be measured, such as a
    preanxiety symptoms, interventions with essential oil, and postanxiety symptoms. The
    outcome from the administration of essential oil can be measured with a pre anxiety
    level and post level of anxiety to determine if the essential oil is effective.4,5
    WORLDWIDE HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF AROMATHERAPY
    Aromatherapy has been used for thousands of years. Hippocrates, father of modern
    medicine, advocated the use of aromatherapy due to his belief that aromatic baths
    and scented massage were key to good health. Essential oils leaders emerged, sup
    porting aromatherapy as a credible therapy for mind, body, and spirit. Table 1 sum
    marizes major historical timelines of countries and cultural influences, validating
    aromatherapy as medical, clinical, and holistic.
    NURSING THEORISTS SUPPORT FOR HEALTH CARE AROMATHERAPY
    Historical evolution of medical, clinical, and holistic uses of essential oils is embraced
    by 8 major nursing theorists. Their theoretic frameworks and concepts reflect the use
    of clinical aromatherapy as a patient-centered and holistic approach for balancing
    physical health, spiritual needs and well-being. The 8 theorists’ embracement con
    firms health care aromatherapy is a credible alternative method (Table 2).
    REGULATION GUIDELINES FOR ESSENTIAL OILS
    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the United States guidelines classify
    essential oils for aromatherapy as cosmetics, because they are not drugs for treating
    or prevention of a disease.10 Therefore, aromatherapy essential oils are not regulated
    by the FDA. The US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) monitors unsafe
    products.11 The CSPC enforces federal laws to protect consumers against unreason
    able injury and death from products.12 The following are examples of how these 2 fed
    eral organizations monitor essential oils.
    Table1
    Historicalevolution
    Country CulturalTherapy
    Egyptian
    culture
    Resins,balms,andfragrantoils
    PapyrusEberswroteafamousmanuscriptaboutaromaticmedicine.
    Thisisbelievedtobearound2800BC.
    Iraq Askeletonwasfound30,000yearsagowithconcentrationofextractedplant
    essentialoils.
    India TheAyurvedanaturalsystemofmedicinewasbasedondiseaseduetoan
    imbalanceofstressinaperson’sconsciousness.
    Needtoregainbalancebyinternalpurificationsfollowedbyspecialdiet,
    herbalremedies,massagetherapy,yoga,andmeditation
    China ShenNung’smanuscriptlisted350plantsin2800BC.
    Ayurvedicphysiciansarecalledholymen.
    Indianshamansareknownasperfumeros,fromscentsofplants.
    Chineseculturestillembracesherbalmedicine.
    TraditionalChinesemedicine
    Basedonharmonyenergyofyin-yang
    Oppositesbalanceiskeytohealth.
    Imbalancehaveillness
    Acupuncture,cupping,herbalteas,powdersfromplants,meditation,and
    herbalburningnearskin
    Greece TheophrastusinheritedthebotanicgardenfromAristotle.Hewroteabook
    aboutspecificusesandformulasforaromatics.
    Kyphiformulacontained16plantsandwasusedforsleepandanxiety,to
    sootheskin,andasanantidoteforsnakebite.Hebecamethefatherof
    botany.
    Hippocrateswroteaboutaromaticbathsandantibacterialpropertiesand
    urgedpeopletocarryaromaticplantsforprotection.
    PedaniusDioscorideswroteDeMateriaMedicacovering700plants,
    includingaromatics.
    Pre-Christianeraemergedwiththebeliefthatessentialoilswerepagan. In
    response,PopeGregorytheGreatpassedalawbanningallaromatics.
    WorksofGalenandHippocratesweresmuggledtoSyriaforsafekeeping.
    Arabia IbnSina,anArabicphysician,usedaromatics,suchassenna,camphor,and
    cloves,formedicaltreatment.
    Inhaledhenbanewasusedasanesthetic.Topicalsugarwasusedtostop
    bleeding.
    Roseororangeblossomwasusedasflavortomedicine.Thisledtothe
    manufacturingofmedicine.
    Medicalaromatherapyemergedinthethirdcentury.
    ThefirstprivateapothecaryshopopenedinBaghdad.withdispensing
    medicines.suchastinctures,suppositories, inhalants,andpills.
    German HieronymusBraunschweigasurgeonandbotanist,wroteabookon
    distillationofoilsfromplantsthatincluded25oils
    France In1919,Gattefosse´,afamouschemist,wasburnedinanexplosioninhis
    laboratory.Thewoundsbecameinfected.Woundrinsingwithessential
    oilseradicatedtheinfection.Hecoinedtheterm,aromatherapy,andwas
    knownforthemedicaluseofessentialoilswiththeirantibacterialand
    healingpropertiesofessentialoils.
    JeanValnet,anarmyphysician,wrotethefirstaromatherapybookbya
    doctor.
    ShirleyPriceauthoredAromatherapyforHealthcareProfessionals.Sheis
    knownforclinicaluseofessentialoils.
    In1961,MargueriteMaury,anurse,publishedLeCapital“Jeunesse”.This
    bookclassifiedclinicaldepartments’useofessentialoils,suchassurgery
    andspatreatment.Maurywon2internationalawardsforherresearch.
    TablefromRefs.4–9
    ClinicalAromatherapy 491
    492
    Farrar & Farrar
    Table 2
    Nursing theoretic frameworks for health care aromatherapy
    Theorist Name
    Florence Nightingale
    Environmental
    Myra Estrin Levine
    Holistic
    Hildegard Peplau
    Interpersonal relations
    Martha Rogers
    Unitary human beings
    and their environment
    are one
    Sister Callista Roy
    Adaptation
    Wanda de Aguilar Horta
    Basic human needs
    Application to Clinical Practice
    Cleanliness, rest, and relaxation properties
    Transformation process preventing stress
    Supports interpersonal relations; promotes personal growth
    Interrelationship between people and plants
    Assist coping and adaptation
    Restore balance, thereby decreasing depression and stress
    Promote holistic patient comfort
    Jean Watson
    Transpersonal care
    Table from Ref.4
    Holistic harmony caring interactive healing relationship such
    as massage and talk



  1. Aromatherapy waterless vaporizers and diffusers were recalled due to a defective
    heater causing a fire multiple times with consumers. The CPSC had the authority to
    cease the sale of the products and refund consumers.11

  2. The FDA protects consumers from false claims and mislabeled products that
    mislead the public. Surveillance found Quinessence Aromatherapy Ltd posted on
    their website advertisement that essential oils protect against and cure coronavirus
    disease-2019. (COVID-19). This false statement triggered a FDA letter warning to
    the owner to take the information off their website within 48 hours and cease the
    sale of essential oil for prevention and cure of COVID-19. These 48 hours included
    developing a plan to be approved by the COVID-19 Task Force. The company was
    located in Europe with essential oils sold in the United States. The owner ignored
    the warning. Due to the fraudulent statement describing essential oils as a curing
    drug for COVID-19, a second joint letter was sent to the owner by the FDA,
    CPSC, the secretary of Health and Human Services, and the U.S. Public Health
    Services ordered the owner of the company to immediately take down the website
    and cease the sell of essential oils as a curing drug. The company’s website was
    also put on the federal surveillance website list.
    Administrators were ordered to cease sale and remove from the Web site immedi
    ately. This incidence of a false claim has brought awareness that currently essential
    oils are complementary therapy and do not treat and/or prevent a disease. Sellers
    need to be aware of descriptions of aromatherapy and consumers need to know
    that aromatherapy is complementary.12
    NURSE AWARENESS OF ESSENTIAL OILS PLANT SOURCES AND USES
    Essential oils are used every day for their aromatic scents—for example, perfumes,
    candles, essential oil plug-ins, scented aerosol sprays for the home, fabric softeners
    Clinical Aromatherapy
    493
    for clothes, hair shampoos, and spices to add flavor to food. Essential oils also are
    used in over-the-counter herbs and added to medications to add a pleasant flavor
    to bitter medications. These aromatic essential oils are growing in popularity, with
    nurses needing to learn about essential oils, their benefits, and safety measures.
    Essential oils come from seeds, stems, leaves, needles, petals, flowers, rinds and
    fruits, woods and resins, roots and rhizomes, and grasses. Oil is extracted from the
    plant by distillation by steam or mechanical cold press. Cher Kaufman, a certified
    aromatherapist, wrote a book with a series of chapters on plant sources for aromatic
    essential oils—seeds, petals and flowers, rinds and fruits, woods and resins, roots and
    rhizomes, and grass. The following is a summary of the plant sources of each cate
    gory, with examples that could be significant to health care nurses.
    Seeds
    Three common examples of essential oils that come from seeds from plants are

  3. Cardamom (Ellettaria cardamomum)—the essential oil is from the plant family Zin
    giberaceae. Uses for this seed oil include an antibacterial, antifungal, antispas
    modic, aphrodisiac, digestive stimulant, expectorant, parasympathetic nervous
    system stimulant, and stimulant, tonic.

  4. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is from the plant family Piperaceae. Uses for this oil
    include an analgesic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antitoxic, aphrodisiac, digestive,
    and circulatory tonic; reducing fever reducing pain; as a rubefacient; and for
    stimulating.

  5. Sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce) is from the plant family Apiaceae.
    Uses for this oil include an anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, antispas
    modic, detoxifier, and digestive and for relieving gas.13
    Stems, Leaves, and Needles
    There are 7 common examples of essential oils derived from stems, leaves, and
    needles.

  6. Cistus (Cistus ladanifer) is from the plant family Cistaceae. This essential oil comes
    from stems, twigs, dried leaves, and dried flowers. Uses for this oil include as a cic
    trisant or for cell regeneration; as an antibacterial, anti-infectious, antimicrobial,
    astringent, and antiviral agent; as an immunity booster and regulator; as a tonic
    and support for parasympathetic and central nervous systems; and for wound
    healing.

  7. Eucalyptus is a tree from the plant family Myrtaceae. It also is referred to by many
    names, such eucalyptus oil, blue gum oil, blue mallee oil, and gully gum oil. The
    leaves and twigs are used for burns, wounds, nasal congestion, lowering blood
    glucose, nasal congestion, and asthma and as a tick repellent. It also is used in
    medications and supplements.

  8. Laurel (Laurus nobilis) is from the plant family Lauraceae. This aromatic evergreen
    scrub is known for its aromatic dark green, glossy leaves. Dried and fresh leaves oil
    is used as ananalgesic, antibacterial, antimicrobial, antiseptic, antispasmodic, and
    antiviral; for boosting the immune system and calming the nervous system; and as
    an expectorant and fungicide.

  9. Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin) comes from the plant family Lamiaceae that is
    commonly called the mint or dead needle busy herb. Oil from leaves are used as
    an antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, aphrodisiac, astrin
    gent, deodorant, and digestive; for relieving gas soothing the nervous system;
    and as a stimulant and tonic.
    494
    Farrar & Farrar

  10. Peppermint (Mentha x piperita L) comes from the plant family Lamiacae in the mint
    family. Peppermint essential oil is a common flavoring agent in pharmaceuticals,
    soaps, cosmetics, food, and beverages. This essential is used as an analgesic,
    antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, antimicrobial, decongestive,
    digestive, and expectorant and relieves coughs.

  11. Pine(Pinussylvestris)—pinus edulis is from the plant family Lamiaceae andfromthe
    mint family. Pine essential oil is derived from the needles on the pine tree. The scent
    is knownfor the uplifting and positive impact on the mood. It is known for treatment
    of postsurgery nausea andvomiting. Essential pine oil is used as an analgesic, anti
    bacterial, antibiotic, anti-infectious, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, and antimicrobial
    agent; assisting in opening lungs and air pathways; as an expectorant; and for
    soothing nerves.

  12. Rosemary(Rosmarinusofficinalis) is from the plant family Lamiaceae. This aromatic
    evergreen shrub’s essential oil is derived from leaves, flowers, and stems. This
    essential oil is known for folk medicine, flavoring food, and herbal tea. Rosemary
    has been known as a sacred oil. Uses for this essential oil are as an analgesic,
    anti-inflammatory, anti-infectious, antiseptic, and antispasmodic agent; for
    breaking up mucus; as a cognitive stimulant, decongestant, expectorant, muscle
    relaxant (cineole), stimulant, and tonic; and for wound healing (verbenone).14
    Petal and Flowers
    There are 8 common essential oils derived from petal and flowers.

  13. Clary sage (Salivia sclarea) is an herbaceous perennial in the plant family Lamia
    ceae with a history of petal and flowers used as an herb. The essential oil of clary
    sageis usedinperfumesandmuscatelflavoring inwinesand liqueur. This essential
    oil is used as an antidepressant, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, and
    aphrodisiac and for calming the nervous system, relaxing the uterus, and stimu
    lating the blood flow.

  14. Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla [Anthemis nobilis]) is in the plant family Astera
    ceae andis acommonnameforseveraldaisy-like flowers. Chamomile essential oil
    from flowers is used in herbal tea and is a popular night herbal tea due to the seda
    tive affect. This essential oil is used for support for the nervous system, inflamma
    tion, insomnia, menstrual issues, headaches, and skin concerns.

  15. Geranium(Pelargoniumxasperum)androse(Pelargoniumgraveolent)—thisessen
    tial oil comes from the plant family Geraniaceae. This perennial plant has a sweet
    floral scent with uses in high-end perfumes and skin products with essentials oils
    resulting in young radiant skin. Essential oil from the flowers are used for reducing
    anxiety, as a sedative, for stimulating relaxation, as aids in symptoms from
    menstruation, as an anti-inflammatory, and for supporting healthy lymph drainage.

  16. Jasmine(Jasminum sambac;Jasminumgrandiflorum)—this essential oil is from the
    plant family Oleaceae. Jasmine is a genus of shrubs and vines in the olive family.
    Flowers of this bushy strong-scented perennial plant are used for scent and in
    tea as a base for green and white teas. As an essential oil, jasmine is used as an
    antidepressant and aphrodisiac, for calming the nervous system, and as a sexual
    tonic and stimulant.

  17. Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) —this essential oil is in the plant family of Lamia
    ceae and is a bushy strong-scented perennial plant. Lavender is a popular house
    de´cor and frequently used with dried flowers as a complement in weddings. The
    popular scent is used in balms, salves, and cosmetics. As an essential oil, lavender
    is used as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, and antispasmodic; for calming
    Clinical Aromatherapy
    495
    the nervous system, lowering blood pressure, and reducing anxiety and sensations
    of pain; as a sedative; and for wound healing.

  18. Neroli (Citrus aurantium var. amara)—this essential oil is in the plant family Ruta
    ceae andis from the bitter orange tree. This essential oil from flowers has a rich flo
    ral scent and is known as orange blossom oil. Neroli is used in scented products,
    such as perfumes and lotions. This essential oil is used as an antidepressant, anti
    fungal, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiparasitic, antiseptic, and
    aphrodisiac; for calming; and as a digestive, nervous system stimulant, sedative,
    and tonic.

  19. Rose (Rosa damascena; R damascena var. alba)—this essential is from the plant
    family Lamiaceae and is a flowering shrub known as a rosebush. Rose oil is a
    powerful rich sweet smell. It is used commonly in perfumery. This essential oil is
    used as an antibacterial, antidepressant, anti-infectious, anti-inflammatory, anti
    septic, antiviral, aphrodisiac, and astringent agent; for calming the nervous system
    and reducing anxiety; as a sedative; as a sexual, general, and uterine tonic; and for
    wound healing.

  20. Ylang-ylang (Cananga odorata)—this essential oil is from the plant family Annona
    ceae, or custard apple family. This tropical flower is a yellow-shaped flower that
    grows on the cananga tree. Oil from ylang-ylang is used in cologne, lotion, food
    flavoring, and soap. This essential oil elevates the mood. Ylang-ylang essential
    oil is used as an antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antiparasitic, antispasmodic,
    and aphrodisiac; for calming the nervous system and lowering blood pressure;
    and as a sexual tonic.15
    Rinds and Fruits

  21. Bergamot (Citrus bergamia) is from the plant family Rutaceae. This yellow or green
    fruit is a hybrid of lemon and bitter orange and has a bitter taste that is more than
    grapefruit but less than a lemon. The essential oil from the peel or zest of the fruit
    can cause photosensitivity, with sun exposure causing damage to sun-exposed
    skin. The essential oil has a citrus fruit smell, with uses in oil perfumes, cosmetics,
    and scenting food. This essential oil is used as an air purifier, antibacterial, antide
    pressant, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral; for calming; as a deodorant;
    for digestive regulating (undereating or overeating); for reducing anxiety; as a seda
    tive and tonic; and for wound healing.

  22. Lemon (citrus limonum)—this essential oil is fruit from a small evergreen tree. This
    oil is from the Rutaceae plant family, with the peel of the fruit and pulp used in culi
    nary and noncultural from lemon essential oil, lemon pie for culinary to cleaning
    products. The distinct sour taste of lemon is a popular essential oil. The essential
    oil from lemon is used as an antibacterial, anticoagulant, antidepressant, anti
    infectious, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antiviral, astringent, antioxidant, and anti
    microbial agent; as a digestive stimulant, immunity booster, and lymphatic; and for
    reducing anxiety.

  23. Mandarin (Citrus reticulata) —this essential oil is from the Rutaceae plant family.
    This small citrus tree grows mandarin oranges that are smaller than oranges. A
    hybrid of the mandarin orange is the tangerine. The mandarin essential oil from
    peel and rind is sweeter and can be dried for seasoning and used in various
    food. This essential oil is used as an analgesic, antidepressant, antiseptic, central
    nervous system tonic, deodorant, digestive tonic, and immunity booster; for
    reducing reduces anxiety and fevers; and as a sedative.

  24. Sweet orange (citrus sinensis)—this essential oil is from the plant family Rutaceae.
    This sweet citrusy greenish orange fruit oil is from the peel and zest. This oil is used
    496
    Farrar & Farrar
    in top perfumes. The leaves are photosensitive but not the fruit. The sweet orange
    essential oil is used as an analgesic, antidepressant, antibacterial antifungal, anti
    septic, antiviral, deodorant, and digestive tonic; for reducing anxiety; as a sedative;
    for soothing the nervous system; and as a stimulant.

  25. Juniper berry (Juniperus communis)—this purple-black berry is a female evergreen
    cone. This essential oil is from the plant family Cupressaceae, derived from coni
    fers, and often is used as a spice. The essential oil is used as an analgesic, anti
    septic, antiseborrheic, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antiviral, decongestant, and
    detoxifier and for increasing circulation and reducing fever.16
    Woods and Resins

  26. Cedarwood (Cedrus atlanticia)—cedarwood is from the plant family Pinaceae and
    the needles, leaves, bark, and wood are for extracting the essential oil. The ever
    green conifers have a soothing woodsy scent. The essential oil is used as an anti
    fungal, antiseptic, and astringent; for breaking up mucus; andas acalmative, insect
    repellent, lymphatic decongestant, and general tonic.

  27. Frankincense (Boswellia carteri)—this essential oil is in the plant family of Bursera
    ceae andis fromaBoswellia tree. Resin that is a hardened gumlike material is used
    in aromatic incense and perfumes. The essential oil is used as an analgesic, anti
    bacterial, antidepressant, anti-infectious, antimicrobial, and astringent agent; for
    immunity tonic; for reducing anxiety; as a sedative; and for soothing the nervous
    system and wound healing.

  28. Sandalwood (Santalum album)—this essential oil is from the plant family Santala
    ceae. The oil is extracted from wood, heartwood of the trunk, and sawdust. The
    essential oil from sandalwood is used in medications, skin beauty treatment, in
    cense sticks, perfumes, mouthwashes, deodorants, and antiseptics. As an
    essential oil, it is used as an antibacterial, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, anti
    microbial, antiviral, aphrodisiac, and sedative; for soothing the soothes nervous
    system; and as a general tonic.17
    Roots and Rhizomes

  29. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is distilled from the rhizome or underground stem of a
    root of the herb zingiber. Ginger also is known as the oil of empowerment for the
    feeling of confidence. Ginger root oil is a frequently used spice. In addition, this
    dried and ugly root is used as an analgesic, antibacterial, antispasmodic, digestive
    support, immunity harmonizer, and rubefacient.

  30. Vetiver (Vetiveria zizanoides) is derived from the aromatic roots and also called khus
    oil. It is derived from the vetiver plant that is a clumpy, green grass that can grow 5
    feet or more. This essential oil is used as an antiseptic, antispasmodic, anti
    inflammatory, digestive stimulant, immunity booster, and sedative, and for skin
    support and soothing the nervous system.18
    Grass

  31. Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) is an essential oil that comes from the leaves
    and stalk of the lemongrass plant. This grassy plant is used in cooking and herbal
    tea. The oil from the grass has a lemony powerful scent and is bright or pale yellow.
    This essential oil is used as an analgesic, antidepressant, antiviral, immunity
    booster, and general tonic.

  32. Palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii var. motia) is an essential oil that comes from a
    tall herbaceous grass and can be called Indian geranium or rose oil. The oil has
    a sweet citrus lemony scent that has a yellow color.19
    Clinical Aromatherapy
    497
    ADMINISTRATION OF ESSENTIAL OILS
    There are 4basic methods for administration of essential oils. Nursing commonly uses
    topical skin application of essential oil for administration. If a facility has an integrative
    medicine department, massagetherapyusuallyincludes an essential oil. The following
    is an overview of the 4 methods by which essential oils are absorbed.

  33. Topical application with skin absorption of the essential oil. Examples include mas
    sage, scented bath, cosmetics, and perfumes.

  34. Absorption of the essential oil by inhaling in nostrils. Examples include direct inha
    lation via diffuser with steam, aroma stones, and oil-scented strip of cloth. Indirect
    absorption examples include scented room spray and heated candle wax, deter
    gent, and bathroom and floor cleaners.

  35. Oral absorption of the essential oil. Examples include gelatin capsules and safe
    dose of essential oil diluted.

  36. Internal absorption of essential oil. Examples include scented mouthwash and
    scented suppository or vagina douche. Essential oil used for flavor in prescription
    medications and herbal medicines.20–22
    PATHOPHYSIOLOGIC RESPONSE TO HEALTH CARE AROMATHERAPY
    When essential oil in aromatherapy is inhaled, molecules activate the olfactory, respi
    ratory, gastrointestinal, and/or integumentary systems based on the pathway of acti
    vation. These molecules are capable of releasing neurotransmitters, such as
    endorphins, to trigger a sense of well-being and an analgesic effect.20,21 There are
    2 common pathways triggering a pathophysiologic response to aromatherapy mole
    cules. The most common pathway is inhalation, such as by a diffuser. Activation of ol
    factory stimulation produces immediate change in parameters for blood pressure,
    pulse rate, muscle tension, pupil dilation, body temperature, and blood flow.20,21
    The following summarizes this pathway:
    The olfactory stimulation by aromatherapy travels via nostrils to the olfactory
    bulb.
    The stimulus then travels to the brain for processing, where the amygdala trig
    gers an emotional response and the hippocampus retrieves and/or forms
    memories.
    The limbic system interacts with the cerebral cortex, activating thoughts and
    feelings.
    The inhaled aromatherapy molecules travel to the upper respiratory tract and
    then to the lower respiratory tract.
    Molecules than travel to the pulmonary blood vessels to the blood stream then to
    organs and tissues.20,21
    In summary, the inhaled aromatherapy molecules affect mind, body, and spirit.
    The second common pathway is through the skin, such as by a massage, in which
    molecules are absorbed through the skin. The pathway is summarized:
    Themolecules travel to the upper respiratory track and then the lower respiratory
    tract.
    Molecules then travel to the pulmonary blood vessels, to the blood stream, and
    then to organs and tissues.20,21
    The skin pathway can activate olfactory stimulation and also activates applica
    tion of scented oil to the skin pathway triggering a mental and physiological
    response.
    498
    Farrar & Farrar
    The skin pathway absorption of essential oils can reduce a patient’s perceived
    stress, enhance healing, and increase communication.20
    SAFE USE OF ESSENTIAL OILS
    Coming home from a long challenging day of work to the aromatic smell of a favorite
    essential oil can immediately decrease the stress from a busy and challenging day.
    Relaxing in a scented uplifting bubble bath can make someone feel like a new person.
    Ontheflip side, aromatic essential oils can be toxic, causing chemical burns and even
    death. Aromatherapy is growing in usage and can be extremely dangerous if not used
    safely because of a knowledge deficit. Two ethical principles apply to nurses when
    administering essential oils. The first is beneficence, in which the nurse takes positive
    steps to prevent harm. The second ethical principle is nonmaleficence, which means
    having an obligation to do no harm to a patient. Legal consequences could result if
    harm to a patient occurs due to negligence from administering of aromatherapy.
    Therefore, the bottom line is the need for nurses to learn about aromatherapy essential
    oils and their potential harms, such as poison and lethal complication. The following
    case reports portray safety considerations, complications, and interventions.
    Combustion Reaction Safety
    TF is a 54-year-old man who lives in Phoenix, Arizona; he is an advocate of essential
    oils and frequently uses them for anxiety and to promote sleep. On his day off, TF has
    several errands, including his monthly supply of essential oils. His first errand was to
    purchase essential oils. During his last errand, TF heard his name being called by an
    old friend. TF sat down to visit with his friend for a few minutes; the visit lasted 45 mi
    nutes. When TF returned to his car, he found black smoke in the car and a large burnt
    hole in his backseat where his purchased essential oils were placed. TF called the po
    lice to file a report.
    Critical analysis revealed the large supply of essential oils were stored in the back
    seat. TF left the oils in the car for 45 minutes with the outside temperature of 112F,
    with the potential increase in the temperature in the car increasing to 160F. The
    essential oils caught on fire, resulting in the smoke and burnt hole in the backseat
    of the car.
    Intervention for this unsafe use of essential oil is education that these oils are flam
    mableandneedtobestoredinacooldarkplaceintheoriginal bottle, which is colored
    to prevent direct sunlight penetrating to the essential oil. Unsafe storage by leaving
    essential oils in a hot car can cause acombustionreaction, triggering flames and afire.
    Elder and Child Safety
    CF, a 66-year-old woman, was admitted for inpatient treatment of sepsis from an
    acute urinary infection. At night she can become agitated and screamed that snakes
    were crawling up her wall. The provider ordered aromatherapy and increased lighting
    in the room. Turning on a bed alarm and increased rounding also were ordered. The
    nurse brought the aromatherapy essential oil to the room and left to get a steam
    diffuser. When the nurse returned, CF appeared drunk. The nurse found the bottle
    open on the bedside table. The nurse called for assistance.
    Critical analysis revealed the nurse left the bottle of essential oil on the nightstand
    unattended when she left the room. The patient was able to open the bottle and drink
    a small amount of the essential oil, causing the drunken behavior.
    Intervention for essential oil left attended with a confused elderly patient was admin
    istration of milk to dilute the essential oil. The provider was called for further orders and
    Clinical Aromatherapy
    499
    an incident report was completed. The elderly and children are vulnerable to adverse
    effects from inappropriate use of essential oils. Early recognition is appearing drunk.
    Essential oils should be locked in a container in a hospital and kept away from elders
    and children. An essential oil bottle should not be left unattended, especially with this
    confused patient with delusions. The diffuser with the essential oil needs to be pre
    pared outside of the patient’s room.11
    Allergic Contact Dermatitis and Primary Contact Dermatitis
    TA, a 30-year-old woman, works at a massage therapist and is extremely popular.
    Bookings must be in advance because her schedule stays full. Each day she works
    8 hours to 9hours, with mostly 1.5-hour massages. She uses a lotion with an aromatic
    essential oil. After 3 months, she developed a bright bred rash on her hands and lower
    arms. She used a steroid cream on the rash without resolving the rash. Over the next
    month, the rash got worse. TA scheduled an appointment with a dermatologist.
    Critical analysis evaluated allergic contact dermatitis versus primary contact derma
    titis. In allergic contact dermatitis, the allergy occurs over a period whereas primary
    contact dermatitis occurs the first time the essential oil is used. In allergic contact
    dermatitis, the symptoms are a bright red rash that worsens with time whereas the pri
    mary contact dermatitis a presents as a red wheal or burn.20,23
    Intervention was based on treating allergic contact dermatitis based on symptom
    atology and length of time. Patch testing revealed the specific essential oil to stop us
    ing, allowing her to continue as a massage therapist. If TA had primary contact
    dermatitis, the red wheal or burn area from the toxic oil would be diluted with vege
    table oil or milk then washed with unscented soap.23
    Essential Oil Phototoxicity
    AJ is a 34-year-old woman who loves the sun. She lives in an apartment with a swim
    ming pool. The average summer temperature is 102F. On weekends she can be
    found at the swimming pool for 4hours per weekend day.AJ’s pool relaxing is 4 hours
    to 5hours per day. Shesets analarm hourly to turn from back to stomach. AJsays the
    sunrays lift her up and gives her a beautiful brown tan with sunscreen oil. Due to the
    shutdown of her state due to COVID-19 and stores closed, AJ decided to shop online
    for homedelivery of essential oils. AJ found a Web site with a sale on essential oils that
    had a pop-up advertisement declaring breaking news that essential oils prevent and
    cure the COVID-19 virus. AJ purchased several citrus fruit essential oils. AJ applied
    a mandarin essential oil to her neck and chest to ward off the COVID-19 virus. AJ
    left the pool early because of a burning sensation on her neck and chest. She took
    ashowerandnoticedseveral burnedareas. Thenext day,the redburned areasturned
    to a brown skin damage appearance unlike any sunburn she ever experienced. AJ
    scheduled a dermatologist appointment due to the discoloration and discomfort not
    resolving.16,20,23
    Critical analysis revealed that AJ was scammed by a fraudulent online statement to
    sell essential oils in a pandemic COVID-19 fearful time. The mandarin essential oil was
    not diluted when applied to the skin, increasing the risk for dermal toxicity. The pure
    mandarin essential oil was phototoxic and inflected damage to the skin, resulting in
    dark pigmented skin that could be permanent.16,23 Dermal toxicity also occurred
    with the essential oil not being diluted. The regular sunburn resulted in redness and
    blisters on her skin. AJ scheduled an urgent dermatology appointment. She used an
    over-the-counter steroid cream for pain relief.
    The intervention to stop using the phototoxic essential oil and seek a specialist,
    which AJ did, with scheduling the dermatology appointment. The essential oil label
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    Farrar & Farrar
    always should be read for safety instructions. If a photosensitivity essential oil is used,
    wait a minimum of 12 hours before exposure to sun ultraviolet radiation. AJ should
    consult a qualified aromatherapist who has training for aromatherapy, not a seller of
    essential oils, to prevent harm from essential oils. A registry database for trained aro
    matherapists who have passed the core level of aromatherapy examination can be
    found at thttps://www.aromatherapycouncil.org.uk/about_us 10 Essential oils always
    should be diluted in a carrier oil. A carrier oil prevents irritation to the skin and side ef
    fects of the essential oil. Examples of carrier oils include coconut oil, coconut oil, aloe
    vera gel, unscented lotion, vegetable oil, and avocado oil. Because oil and water do
    not mix, milk is used to remove the oil and calm the skin followed by washing of the
    skin by unscented soap.23
    Phototoxic essential oil contains constituents that triggers a chemical process that
    changes the skin DNA, making the skin susceptible to sun ultraviolet radiation. This
    chemical change in the skin is called photosensitivity and the primary constituent is
    confurocoumarins that causes phototoxic reaction. Exposure of the applied photo
    sensitivity essential oil to ultraviolet radiation from the sun inflicts skin damage with
    darkly pigmented skin that can be permanent due to the long period of exposure to
    sun ultraviolet radiation.23 It is extremely important to determine if an essential oil is
    phototoxic. AJ should find this warning on the label of the essential oil. Essential oils
    are not regulated bytheFDAbuttheFDAmonitorsWebsitesforfraudulentpostings.
    AJ should report the online site and harm to her skin to the FDA for investigation.11
    Oral Toxicity
    LM, a 110-pounds 20-year-old woman who lived with her mother, was told by an
    essential oil seller that she heard essential oils could prevent and cure COVID-19.
    LMwasterrified that she could contract the virus with a resurgence of COVID-19 later
    in the year. LM was extremely excited about this information and asked which essen
    tial oil she should use orally to protect herself from this deadly pandemic COVID-19
    virus. The seller recommended a safe dose for eucalyptus essential oil twice weekly
    orally. After a week LM decided to increase the oral dose to ward off the COVID-19
    virus. She decided to drink half of an 8 oz glass of eucalyptus essential oil. Within
    10 minutes she experienced burning in her throat, mouth, and stomach.23 LM yelled
    for her mother to come quickly. The mother found the daughter vomiting, staggering,
    and with slurred speech. The mother found the eucalyptus essential oil bottle and a
    glass indicating she had drunk eucalyptus essential oil. The mother called 911 with
    the dispatcher sending an ambulance and notifying the Poison Control Center for
    eucalyptus poisoning.
    Critical analysis of oral toxicity of eucalyptus revealed LM had drunk an unsafe dose
    causing poisoning with central nervous system depression and a chemical burn in her
    mouth, throat, and stomach. LM was admitted to the intensive care unit.
    Intervention was police investigation of the fraudulent information that eucalyptus
    could prevent and cure COVID-19 information by the seller of the essential oil with un
    intentional poisoning LM. A qualified aromatherapist that is certified or completed
    aromatherapy curriculum. Don’t take advise from a seller of essential oils without
    expertise. Seek consultation for safe use of essential oils.11 Even with a safe oral
    dose of eucalyptus can cause harm. Safe use of essential oils is to not take essential
    oils internally. It is extremely important that induced vomiting is not done for this
    toxicity.
    Oral toxicity symptoms are rapid decline with complaint of burning in the mouth and
    throat and abdominal pain. Central nervous symptoms are ataxia and respiratory
    Clinical Aromatherapy
    501
    depression, and, with a higher dose, possible nasal intubation is needed for mechan
    ical ventilation and deep coma. Death can occur with a toxic dose.20,23
    Eye Safety
    MFaccidently splashed essential oil in an eye when she was preparing essential oil for
    a diffuser. Her eye was burning and painful and her vision blurred in the eye.
    Critical analysis reveals essential oils are toxic to eyes and can result in a chemical
    burn. The eye should be rapidly irrigated with milk or a vegetable oil carrier. A wash
    cloth or cotton ball can help with the irrigation. After treatment flush the eye with water.
    Do not flush the eye with water initially due to oil and water not mixing.
    AROMATHERAPY CLINICAL MANAGEMENT
    Clinical nursing aromatherapy is patient symptom management with measuring the
    outcome in a clinical setting. When aromatherapy is ordered by a provider for symp
    tom management, a nurse needs to perform a history assessment, obtain vital signs,
    identify the symptom, educate the patient, measure symptom management, evaluate
    the effectiveness, and document the plan of care.1,6,7,24 The following is an overview
    of clinical management of the essential oil:
    Allergy—inhalant, skin, food, and medication allergy or sensitivity. Consider the
    need for a patch test.
    Chronic conditions—assess condition that could be impacted by aromatherapy,
    such as plant source triggering asthma attack or cancer that is fed by estrogen,
    with a few essential oils having estrogenic activity.
    Obtain vital signs—assess if there is a problem proceeding with essential oil
    administration.
    Symptoms needing to be managed—such as anxiety, depression, insomnia,
    nausea, and pain
    Educate thepatient about theessential oil, procedure, safety, symptom manage
    ment, patient-centered selection of the essential oil, and consent for
    implementation.
    Outcomemeasurementofsymptomrelief—selectatoolformeasuringthesymp
    tom, such as pain. The pain tool could be measurement of pain from 1 to 10 or
    visual picture rating of pain; or, a nonverbal patient’s pain could be measured
    with a visual picture range, and pain in a patient unable to communicate could
    be measured with physiologic changes, such as vital signs, guarding of the
    area, and facial grimaces from discomfort. After selection of the pain measure
    ment tool, rate the presymptom range, and post-implementation, measure at
    end of post symptom score for a change in outcome findings.
    Evaluate the effectiveness of the essential oil on the symptom. The outcome
    goals are decrease in the symptom and increased well-being and quality of
    life. Patient-centered symptom management and presence of a nurse could in
    crease patient satisfaction.
    Document the procedure and incorporate into the plan of care.
    Examples of clinical conditions and settings that can benefit in the management
    of symptoms in the inpatient and outpatient settings are pain, nausea and vom
    iting, preoperative anxiety, critical care, general well-being, anxiety, depression,
    stress, insomnia, respiratory, dementia, oncology, palliative care, hospice, and
    end of life.1,6,7,24
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    Farrar & Farrar
    BEST PRACTICE MODEL FOR CLINICAL SYMPTOM MANAGEMENT
    Aromatherapy is used as an alternative medicine and complement to traditional care.
    Aromatherapy is rising in popularity and is a cost-effective symptom manager. The
    following are suggested steps for guidance and triggers for brainstorming to develop
    a customized patient-centered symptom management program using essential oils in
    an inpatient or outpatient setting.

  37. Buy-in from major stakeholders. Develop a committee that includes interprofes
    sional members. Input from all stakeholders, including frontline nurses, needs to
    be embraced; and, commit, by a recorded vote, to proceeding with the aroma
    therapy program.

  38. Develop a policy and procedure manual. Search the literature for best practice
    aromatherapy models. If possible, contact the facility for assistance with the
    startup of the program. For example, a best practice model is at the Mayo Clinic
    in Phoenix Arizona. This research and education facility uses aromatherapy for
    alternative medicine and has integrative medicine.

  39. Upon approval, establish guidelines for safe and effective implementation,
    including infection control, safe storage, and disposal of the chemical oil.

  40. Identify common symptoms that could occur in the facility, such as pain, anxiety,
    depression, nausea, and insomnia.

  41. Identify nursing considerations, such as assessment, chronic illness, administra
    tion, and safety.

  42. Identify preoutcome and postoutcome measurements and best tools for measure
    ment. For example, anxiety is a symptom: identify a pretest and post-test to mea
    sure anxiety that is a short tool.

  43. Identify and educate aromatherapy champions to lead the new program by super
    vising and mentoring nurses, for example, a classroom course for hospital nurses
    and a certified clinical aromatherapy practitioner course.

  44. Evaluate the data from the pre-intervention and post-intervention of aromatherapy.
    Interpret the findings and refine if needed.

  45. Data analysis to justify aromatherapy is an effective intervention for symptom
    management.

  46. Seek a provider standing order for aromatherapy for sustainability.1,24
    SUMMARY
    Aromatic scents and oils used in clinical aromatherapy can be beneficial for symp
    tom management such as pain, nausea, vomiting, anxiety, depression, stress,
    insomnia, agitation with dementia, cancer pain, and end of life symptoms, Clinical
    aromatherapy has been found beneficial in the inpatient and outpatient settings
    especially critical care, oncology, palliative care, hospice, and surgical. On the
    flip side, aromatic essential oils can be dangerous and toxic due to certain oils be
    ing flammable, causing skin dermatitis, or being phototoxic, with risks of chemical
    burn, oral toxicity, and even death. Therefore, it is important that nurses learn
    about essential oils. If a facility has a clinical aromatherapy program, it is critical
    that frontline nurses be educated with a classroom course on essential oils. Cham
    pions need to be selected for a clinical aromatherapy practitioner course. These
    certified aromatherapists can lead the program, serve as consultants, and mentor
    nurses.


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