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الصفحة ١
(1)
An Introduction
This book seeks to introduce students to some analytical scopes of political science through
debates of research, theory, comparative, and international politics inquiries within the discipline.
The goal of this book to help students to think analytically about politics. In addition, political
science is organized into many specialized groups. For instance, Political science has a variety of
subfields. Each subfield focuses on a set of questions. The major subficlds include. Comparative
polítics, focusing on examining how different political systems operate. It can include
comparisons of systems at a macro or micro level, that is, comparing general political structures
or focusing on individual elements of political systems. For example, comparative politics can
include a comparison of how democratic and authoritarian political structures differ, as well as a
comparison of how specific rules governing campaign contributions differ from one country to the
next. International relations, focusing on relationships between and among states. Unlike
comparative politics, which zeroes in on how government or politics operates within a country,
international relations studies what transpires between states. Its subject matter includes war,
regional integration, international organizations, military alliances, economic pacts, ani so on
Ellen Grigsby, Analyzing Politics, Cengage Learning, 2014, p.16
3.


الصفحة ٢
Fubic policy, studying how laws, regulations, and other policies are formulated, implemented
policy
mof onint :
necessary? How can policies be designed to meet specific needs effecrively? What contributes to
a policy's effectiveness? Why are ineffective policies sometimes continued rather than
and evaluated. This subficld looks closely at such questions as, what makes a
discontinued? What should be the standards for evaluating policies??
The Distinction between Public Administration and Public Management
Public management and public administration used interchangeably. Public management looke
closely at the implementation of policies, procedures, and actions of administration considerine
management in private and non-profit sectors. Public administration traditionally has been
connected to government offices or public service.' Administration is most often concerned with
determining goals, objectives, and purpose while management functions to achieve the goals set
by the administration. A closer look at administration and management reveals various degrees
of difference
What is
Administration: Determines policy, procedures, goals and objectives.
Political
Management Carries follows or carries out the policy, procedures, goals, and objecune
dimension
set by administration.
Greece (a
Politics, w
athid, p.16
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4.


الصفحة ٣
Administration Is usually a top-level authority. "Management: Is usually a middle-level
authority.
. Administration: Has long related to government office, military organization, or
educational organtzation.
• Managemrnt: Has long related to business enterprises in the private or non-profit
sectors.
Administration Has been traditionally seen as making decisions based on politics, public
opinion, or government policies
Management: Has been traditionally seen as making decisions based on personal values,
opinions of managers, or the value to the bottom line profits.
Administration: Handles the business of the organization. ton me
Management: Handles the relationships among employees. b set
ngt atsds si
What is Political Science?
m lowirhe frpem be
Political Science is one of the number of titles for the academic study of politics in all its
dimensions. As an academic discipline the subject is very old, which can be traced back to ancient
Greece (about 500 to 300 BC). The term Political Science is intimately related to the word
Politics, which itself derives from the Greek word 'Polis' meaning a city-state. To the Greeks the
city was the state and the subject that deals with the city-state and its problems was designated


الصفحة ٤
study of control relation:
as polties The Scholirs in Athens were the fitst to deal with peoblems af city-state and thes
dnif social control In
explained a political theory Later, Socrates (470-3998.C), Plato (428-347 B.C) and An
systematic and rigo
(4 3218 C) continued to concuct the scientific study of the various prohlents concerni
emplasis of politic
state and the government. Aristotle, the world famous Greek philosopher, however excelled Li
question that beh
teacher Plato and his teacher's teacher - Socrates. Now Aristotle is regarded as the father ofe
behave in the wa
science of Polities in the west, 7 Political Science is the study of State, government and polities
American Politic
A State is an entiry possessing a permanent population, a defined territory, a government
commanding obedience, the capacity to deal with other States. Government is the politiesl
(as) the study of
organization through which the collective will of the people is formulated, expressed and
perspectives".
executed. As a matter of fact, the state operates through the government machinery. Governmenr
of human relati
is also defined as an organization thar possesses the legitimate means of coercion in a society.
Is Political
Politics can be simply defined as the activity by which differing interests within a given unit of
Political scien
nule are conciliated by giving them a share in power in proportion to their importance to the
welfare and survival of the whole community. * According to Paul Janet Political science is that
of living hun
branch of social science which treats the foundations of the State and the principles
so must his
of
government, Catlin defines Political science as the study of "the act of human and social control of
his manifol
It is the hur
DavidLSilla, Interrnational Encyciopedia of the Social Sciences, Volume 8; Volume 15,1977
*Mutra N.Rathbard, It all began, as unual, with the Greeks February 11, 2006, https://misesorg/lihrary/it-all-bege
al geka
p//www.apenetu/upenlearn/people-politics-law/politics-policy-peaple/what-politics/content-section-212
N.Jarapalan. Canprehensive Mudern Palitcal Analysis 2002.p2
10 by Hertra


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sruly of control relatiomship of wills". German writera regand it as the stiuly concerning the problem of power
dal coitrsr In the early 1950s and the 1960s, a behavioral revelution stressed tle pend fe
avitematie und rigoroualy scientific study of individunl and group behavior. This has shifred the
emphasis of political studies away from tradicional legal-fnstitutional manifestationt. The centril.
guestion that behaviouralists ask is: "Why do individuals, institutional actors and nation-era
behave in the way they dor" Behaviouralists are interested in establishing pattern of catisation
American Political scientist Hrold D. Lasswell defines "Political Science as an empirical discipline,
(as) the study of the shaping and sharing of power and a political act (as) one performed in power
perspectives". Robert A. Dahl defines palitical system as follows: "A political system is any pattern
of human relationships that involve, to a significant extent, however, rule or authority", 10
Is Political Science a Science?
Political science deals with men and it is a living subject matter which can be explained in terms
of living human activity. It cannot be expressed in fixed or static formulac. Man is dynamic, and
so must his institutions be. They must adjust themselves with the changing demands of man and
his manifold needs. No institution is today what it was yesterday and what it will be tomorrow.
It is the human element or the livingness of the subject which makes Political Science inexact and
*by Bertrand Hadie, Dirk Herg-Schlosser, Lenniardo Morlino, International Encyclopadia of Political Science 2011, p137


الصفحة ٦
indefinite." Does a science involve merely systematic reasoning, or must the reasoning be
and the conclusions clearly defined and subject to no exceptions as in the case of natural science
forms and functions
Does the claim of Political Science to be science involve the power to predict the political f
Science also include
Natural scientists argue that political science cannot be a science because-
institutions in a socie
is why we study, in !
O The variables in political science are not all subject to measurement.
Study of Natior
O Unlike natural scientists, political scientists cannot set
up experiments with
into small city-stat
what are apparently the same fngredients, in the same conditions and produce
the meaning of the
the same results.
is nor limired to
O Political scientists can never accurately predict.
problems Stuc
Scope of Political Science: Political Science is, thus, an organized body of knowledge the
Political Science
facts of which have been scientifically and systematically observed, collected and classified, and
course of develo
from rhese facts are formulated and proved a series of propositions or principles which forms the
institutions and
basis of the science" Study of State and Government. Political Science is the science of
Study of the
the State and the Government, it conducts the scientific study of both the State and the
Government. It deals with the nature and formation of the State and tries to understand various
topic of the lat
known definit
Bertell Ollman, What is Political Science? Whut Should it Be
Attps//www.nyuedu/projecta/ollman/docr/what.poly.ucL.php
12 Frank Healey, Richard A Chapman, Michael Sheehan, Elements in Political Sclence, Edinburgh Univeraity Press 2006,
14 https://www.
15 http://www.
sclence.html
p.12
16 http://www.
hto //www.
sclence html
http://www.ejbas.com/Data/Sites/1/vol2ne10januaryz014/ejba-1321-14-thesocialsciencesandthescientificstudy pdf


الصفحة ٧
iorms and funcrions of the Government " Study of Institutions. The scope of Folitical
Seience, also tncludes the study of associations and institutions. There are many tyres of
institutionu in a society and the State an institution that stands supteme controls all of them This
is why we study, in Political Science, these institutions along with the State Is
Study of National and International Problems. In ancient times Greece was divided
Into small city-states and the affairs related to those city-states were known as politics. But now
the meaning of the word "politics" is not considered to be so narrow. These days Political Science
is nor limited to the city-states only, but it deals with the national and the international
problems, 16 Study of Past, Present and Future Development of State. Scope of
Political Science is not restricted to the study of past and present alone, but it directs the future
elil
course of development of the State. It gives timely suggestions with a view to improving political
institutions and modifying political activities to meet the new dimensions of the changing world
Study of the Concept of Power. With the behavioral revolution in politics, the central
topic af the latest study in Political Science has become the study of the power. Probably the best-
known definition of power is that of Max Weber (1864-1920) who characterized power as the
4 https://www.paliact.washington.edu/what-political'sclence
3 http://www.preservearticles.com/2014072233519/political-scietice-natire-scope-and-methads-of-political-
science.html
16 hutp //www.hlstoryguide.org/ancient/lenhtal
http://www.preservearti:um/2014072233519/poltical setettce-nature-scopeand-methads of-political-
acience htm!


الصفحة ٨
chance of a man or several men to realize own will in a communal action cven against th
xpecimental in the sen
resistance of others who are participating in the action."
have proved its fitness
3 Historical M
Methods of Political Science:
The methods of investigation employed in political science are
The present is the gif
the origin, developm
1- Observational Method:
Government. The
This method is based on direct observation and reflection. It helps in arriving at certain political
Savigny, Seeley, M.
principle in the light of observation made and information obtained. In the olden times Plato
method. Sabine ans
visited all the progressive countries right from Asia to southern Italy, He closely studied the social
political theory" ac
economic and political conditions of these countries and then could be able to propound certain
It is therefore es
principles to Political Science. In modern times James Brice employed this method. He visited the
produced".
USA, Canada, France, Switzerland, Australia and New Zealand, studied the people and their
4- Compara
countries. clearly observed the workings of their institurions and formed his own conclusion
The comparativ
2- Experimental Method:
general laws an
Experiment is obeervation under conditions arranged by the investigator. We may not
comparison anc
experiment in Political Science as we do in a Physical Science, but practical experiments in
many as 158 ca
palitical institutions are being constantly made, consciously or unconsciously. Every government
conclusions.
mukes experiments when it adopts a policy or enacts a new law. Governmental policy changet
Tocqueville, B
and laws are amended or repealed if their public utility is not abundantly proved. Dr. Gamt
countries and
rightly affirms that "the enactment of every new law, the catablishment of every new policy
http://aciencnjraskar/papes/10774/Political-Science-Discipline-Political-Science html
hps//www.coursehern.cum/fla/tga-observational-Method-This-method-ts-based-on-direct-observatie
and/
2 httn //wwwrF
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10


الصفحة ٩
experimental in the sense that it is regarded mercly as provisional or tentative until the read
have proved its fieness to become permanent. 20
5- Statistic
3 Historical Method:
The method w
The present is the gift of the past, This is the reason why we seek help of history, when we stu
the origin, development and the present nature of such political institution as the State and th
Government. The historical method supplements the experimental method. Montescquie
Savigny, Seeley, Maine Freeman and Laski are some of the eminent exponents of historical
method. Sabine and other traditional writers attached great importance historical approach. "A
study of politi
quantitative
statistical te
relations. In
framed and
political theory" according to Sabine is always advanced in reference to a pretty specific siru
degree of as
Ir is therefore essential to understand "the time, place and circumstances in which ir
6- Phil
produced". 21
In Politic
4- Comparative Method:
human n
The comparative method which is closely related to historical method, attempts to discover
function
general laws and conclusions from the study of past or existing States by a process of selection
exponer
comparison and elimination. Greek philosopher Aristotle (384-322B.C) is said to have studied as
on the
State, a
many as 158 constitutions and after analyzing and comparing them, he arrived at certain definite
conclusions. In modern times comparative method has been used by Montesquieu, De
Impo
Tocqueville, Bryce and many others. James Bryce compared the working of democracy in different
Now-
countries and then, accounted for its merits and defects as a form of government.
lives.
22
a du
20 http://www.preservearticles.com/2014072233519/political-science-nature-scope-and-methods-of-political-
science.html
2 https://ballbhandoutnotes.wordpress.com/tag/historical-method-of-political-science/
22 Eugene Nweke and Nkwachukwu Orji (eds.) A Handbook of Political Science, Abakaliki: Department of Political Science
Ebonyi State University, 2009.
righ
23 w
24 hi
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الصفحة ١٠
5- Statistical Method:
The method which has recently become increasingly important and is being widely used in the
we study
udy of political phenomenon is the statistical method, It attempts to describe and measure in
and the
quantitative terms and is specially to the study of political parties and public opinion. The
ratistical techniques extended to the study of comparative government and international
squieu
relations, In some Western countries "public opinion polls" or "Gallup polls" are held. If skillfully
storical
framed and conducted, such polls have shown themselves, in UK and USA, to be capable of a high
ch. "A
23
degree of accuracy.
tion"
6- Philosophical Method
was
In Political Science this method of investigation starts from some abstract original idea about
human nature and draws deduction from that idea as to the nature of the State, its aims, its
functions and its future. Plato Rousseau, Hegel, Bradley, Kant, and Sidgwick are prominent
exponents of this method. When dealing with the question "what ought to be" we must depend
ver
on the philosophical method. Almost all political thinkers, who wished to be organized an ideal
State, adopted this method. 24
as
Importance of Studying Political Science:
Now-a-days we cannot think ourselves outside the State. The State is ever present in our everyday
lives. As a citizen we have specific roles and responsibilities towards the State. The State has also
a duty to uphold the rights of the citizens. By studying political science, we come to know our
rights and obligations in the State, All modern States have grown and capacity in recent years.
2www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR17/kura.pdf
4 https://www.andrew.cmu.edu//Popper%20-%20The%200pen%20Society.
12


الصفحة ١١
Most states have extended their roles and responsibilities from primarily defense and law and
order concerns to concerns about everyday economic management, welfare services and the
egulation of many aspects of social life. Studying Political Science helps us realize the
multifarious functions the State,
Dalirical Science inlorms the learners with dilferent forms of government and their relutive
aualities and demerits, It also shed light on the political systems and governments of other
countries of the world thereby enabling the learners to assess their own government and political
system in the contemporary context Political knowledge provides the social glue that binds rhe
citizens to his or her political system. Regimes of any kind do not last for long without political
support. Polirical support relies upon people recognizing the validity of their political arguments.
As ane writer puts it: "Presidents are not respected, laws are not obeyed, taxes are not pald.
political stability does not prevail- unless people believes", 25
Political Science is the branch of knowledge that deals with systematic study of the structure
and behavior of the state and political institutions through scientific analysis, It is an academic
discipline concerned with man's official institutions and activities, such as the state, government,
citizenship, public affairs etc. In other words, it is a social science concerned with the theory,
description, analysis and prediction of political behavior, political activities. Politics refers to the
subject matter of our study, science denotes the methodology or the way of studying the process
of politics. The first term seeks to answer the question what is studied' and the second term
Barrie Axlord, Gary K. Browning Richard Hugvins, Ben Rogamond, John Turner, John Turner, Politics: An Introducton.
Routledge, 2005, p43
13


الصفحة ١٢
services anvd t
s us realize th
bow is it studied. Therefore, the political phenomenon which should be studied in
vecordance with a definite plan or system is called political science
d their relative
Political Science is About:7
nents of othe
+ Society: -It may be defined as 'the complex of organized association and institution within
t and political
a community". It is an unorganized or organized, it is wider or nartow groups of human
beings living together in a arca. The social instinct of man compels him to live in society.
hat binds the
According to Laski, by society, "a group of human beings living together for the
out political
satisfaction of their mutual wants'. 28
arguments
State is politically organized under a common law within a prescribe boundaries. It
2-
re not paid,
stands for the protection to life, liberty and property to individuals and it tries to promote
human welfare and good life.29
3- Government: It is the institutionalized power of state or authority. It is the agent
structure
through which the will of the state is formulated, expressed and realized. It consists of
academic
institutions responsible for making collective decisions for society.
ernment
4. Politics: is the study of state and activity of person involved with the state i.e government.
theory,
It refers to the current problems of state and government, the actual process of
s to the
cooperation, conflict and competition for power in society.
5. Science: is the systematic study of the structure and behavior of the physical and natural
is difficult to give a specific definition to political science, because of its varying scope in
wboids
process
d term
world through observation, evidence and experiment. Definitions of Political Science It
inon line abod
27 https://books.google.com.eg/books?isbn=D0191619795
28 Pathak, Education in the Emerging India,2007, p.81
29 http://www.universityofcalicut.info/syl/PoliticalScience.pdf
26 www.britannica.com/topic/political-science
cjon
14
nd law and


الصفحة ١٣
different situations. Let us examine some of those definitions
lanet Polirical science is that part of science which treats of the foundations of
state and the principles of government".
Lasswell- political science is the study of shaping and sharing of power"
Durid Eisten- "Political science is the study of the authoritative allocation of values fer a
society". "Political Science begins and ends with the state - Gamer
-Political Science deals with government only" - Leacock
Science of polis- Aristotle Science of state - Gettle
Politics deals with government – Lecock Authoritative allocation of values -Easton
Politics is the struggle for and use of power Morgenthau
central theme of Political
From the above definitions we may conclude that the 'state' i t
Science. It is the study about the state, its origin, its nature, its structure, its functions.
Approaches to the study of Political Science:
According to Van Dyke , the word ' approach' is define to denote the criteria employed in
selecting the questions to ask and the data to consider in political inquiry." In political science.
different scholars and students employ different criteria to analyze the data and find out the
answers of the questions These criteria have been designated as approach. "
1- Normative Approach.
In the normative or classical period, political problems were analyzed philosophically. The
method was deductive, and the approach was normative. In this period the ethical basis and moral
* http://www.scribd.com/document/121802464/Political-Science
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الصفحة ١٤
ions of
purpose of the political community was analyzed in detail by the political philosophers. The
purpose of this approach is to clarify the words and terms used by the political philosophers. They
nent roo much of their times on the problems of ends and means and in describing the ideal state.
ies for a
The interpretation of normative approach in political activities evokes interests in the mind of the
srudents of political science. It studies the state, government, and man on political being is fully
mixed with the pursuit of certain goals, morals, truths, or high principles. The writings of Plato,
Hobbes, Locke, Bentham and Hegel have the characteristics of the classical period. They were very
On
particular in finding the standards or values of life like justice, freedom and happiness."
2-Philosophical Approach.
Philosophical approach is another traditional or classical approach to the study of political
science. It is one of the oldest approaches to the study of politics and known as speculative or
ethical or metaphysical approach. The philosophical approach attempts to find the truths of
political events or incidents. It is mainly concerned with the analysis of the nature and
d in
fundamental attributes of the state, the concept of political obligations, the nature of political
authority and other problems of philosophical in nature. The purpose of philosophical approach
nce.
is to clarify the words and terms used by the political philosophers. It explores the objective of
the
political writings or the purpose of political writer. It also aims to enhance linguistic clarity and
h. 30
reduce linguistic confusion. This method starts with assumptions about the nature and end of the
state based on philosophical ground.
he
ral
31
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الصفحة ١٥
3- Historical Approach.
Historical approach is another traditional approach of studying political science. History
a best kind of laboratory for political science It is the store-house of the past incidents
pertaining to human life The study of history gives Us not only information about what happened
tce but aleo about the utility and futility of various institutions of various times the
approach
the
chief
method
historical
as
of
studying
political
phenomena. History not only explains institutions, but it helps us to make certain deduction for
future guidance. History tells us how government, political parties and many other
institutions worked, their successes and failures and from these we receive lessons whịch guide
for the future course of action The approach is reached on the assumption that political science
emerged out of socioeconomic crisis as well as the reactions they leave on the minds of the great
thinkers.
4- Institutional Approach.
The institutional approach shows a shift in the scope, methods, and objective of the discipline of
political science. It gives importance to the study of formal as well as informal structure of
political institutions like executive, legislature, judiciary, political parties, pressure and interests
groups etc. in political system. It is also known as saructural approach. 3
Political science began to study formal governmentalinstitution The nature and structure of the
legally constiruted institutions became the subject matter of political science Political
www.universityofcalicutinfo/tyl/PoliticalScience pdf
i www.uriversityofcalicut.info/syl/PoliticalScience.pdf
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الصفحة ١٦
History
nhilosophers began to study the historical evolution of various political institurions. In the words
acidents
of Dyke, the study of politics is the study of the state or of government and related institutions,M
Ppened
Washy says, " The emphasis of the institutional or structural approach is almost exclusively on
32, the
the formal aspects of government and politics. Since various institutions constitute the structure
litical
ef the socicty it is also called structural approach.' After analyzing properly, the actual functions
on for
of various institutions political philosophers compared them with other institutions,
ether
Comparative study of the merits and demerits of the different systems like unitary and federal,
uide
parliamentary and presidential territorial and proportional representation was made by the
nce
political philosophers of the institutional period. The emphasis was on the importance of the
governmental institutions and practice in promoting social conditions and realizing moral and
eat
political purposes. The advocates of institutional approach do not consider the impact of
institutions or rules upon the individuals. Without individuals the institutions have no practical
importance, thus it has been vehemently criticized.
5-Behavioral Approach.
Behaviouralism is one of the most important developments in the study of political science. In the
20th century. It is also considered to be a new or modern approach to the study of political science.
Really, the approach started with a protest movement of American political scientists against the
traditional study of political science. They believed that the traditional approaches totally
neglected the political phenomena. Therefore, they developed a new approach for the careful
study of political phenomena, i.e behavior approach.
* www.universityofcalicut.info/syl/PoliticalScience.pdf
18


الصفحة ١٧
They began to adopt the methods of natural sciences like observation, survey and measurement
et scienice Behavioralism (or behaviouralism) is an approach in political science, which
emerged in the 1930s in the United States as a result of dissatisfaction of the then existing
approaches. Following the Second Warld War through until the 1960s, behavioralism was a
source of controversy. It was the site of discussion betwecen traditionalist and new emesging
approaches to political science
Tha arigins of behavioralism is often attributed to the work of University of Chicago professor
Charles Merriam, who emphasized the importance of examining political behavior of individuals
and groups rather than only considering how they abide by legal or formal rules Prior to the
"behavioralist revalution', political science being a science at all was disputed. Critics saw the
study of politics as being primarily qualitative and normative, and claimed that it lacked a
scientific method necessary to be deemed a science. Behavioralists used strict methodology and
empirical research to validate their study as a social science, The behavioralist approach was
innovative because it changed the attitude of the purpose of inquiry. It moved toward research
that was supported by verifiable facts "
The existing division between the traditional and behavioral approach is based on the views
shared by the followers of each approach in term of research interest, advancements of
generalization in the sub discipline, subscription to ethical values and devotion to academic
excellence. However, both approuches and so many other approaches to the study of political
acience are equally committed to creating an understanding for political process, identifying and
improving on the perfect' political system and generally purifying the study of politics."
hetp //profgoodlucktaiking blornt.com.eg/2015/03/behavioural-approach.html
34 http://prufgoordctetalug blogspot.com.eg/2015/03/behavioural-appriach htmi
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الصفحة ١٨
nce, whic
The behavioral approach is really based on the assumption that political institutions and nature
n existing
of political events are largely determined by the nature and behavior of the people. The political
sm was
behavior of individuals and groups may determine the mode of operation of the state itself. So, the
emerging
esence of the behaviouralist approach is its central focus on political behavior of individuals.
The behaviouralist attempt to understand political phenomena realistically in term of observed
and observable data. It is the explanation, formulation and hypothesisation of the observed and
rofessor
ohservable behavior of men in respect of the governance of the country. The use of more and more
vidualh
scientific means inspired several political philosophers to consider political science as a value free
to the
science. That means they aim at the creation of a systematic casual theory and not a value theory.
w the
The State:
ked a
y and
The term State' occupies the highest place and central theme in the study of political
Was
science. The modern term "state" is derived from the word "status". The Greeks used the word
arch
Polis' to denote the 'city-state'. In political science the term 'state' we mean an association of
people who live within a geographical area under an organized government and subject to no
ws
outside control. State is an institution to ensure law and order and maintain harmony of social
of
relations. It creates those conditions, which are necessary for the development of individual
al
personality. It creates laws and rules to regulate human behavior. It stands for the welfare of
society as whole and protect the rights and life of citizen from internal and external disturbances
or war. In the scientific sense of the term "the state means a collection of human beings occupying
20
emene


الصفحة ١٩
a delinite territory, organized under a govermmenE upreme within the country and det to o
outside control
Definitions of State:
The term state has heen defined dillerently by various political thinkers fony dt
popular definitions atc given below:
1 Woodrow Wilson-"The state is a people organized for law withina definite teitory
2- HJ. Laskd- "State is a territorial society divided into government and subject daiming
with its allotted physical area, a supremacy over all other institutions".
3- Bluntschli- "The state is politically organized people of a definite territory".
The Modern Conception of the State:
Almond used the term political system' instead of the state. According to him' political system
is the system of interactions to be found in all independent societies which perform the functions
of integration and adaptation (both internally and vis-a-vis other societies)
Elements of the State:
The above definitions given by various writers show that there are four elements of a state
ramely Population, Territory, Government and Sovereignty, Of these four elements, the hirst two
21


الصفحة ٢٠
are physical, the third political and the fourth spiritual. The essential four elements are discutsed
territor
below.
social
1 Population:
3- Gc
Since state is a human institution and highest of all human associations there can be
Goven
state without human beings state can exist in an uninhabited land. There is no limir
state
number of citizens in a state. in the modern times the scholars have not submitted to fir
sover
upper or lower limits of population. Their number should either be too small to be self.
aggr
sufficient nor too large to be well governed.
peop
The People's Republic of China is the largest state in respect of population and San Marino in
Gow
Italy is the smallest The modern state gives preference to the big size population because, the
4.S
bigger the population, the greater will be its man power. They can fight for a longer period
The
during the war period.
par
2Territory.
Ar
A modern state cannot exist without territory. The largest state in size is the former U.3.0A
us
whose area covered about one by sixth of the world, whereas Vatican in Rome has an atek
St
about 4 square miles. The advantage of small state is that they remain compact and e
IT
governed. But at the same time, they are at great disadvantage as in the matters of difference
and natural rescources. But size is no index of greatness. Any how the modern age is of large
22


الصفحة ٢١
territorial state because a large state can mobilize all its resources for the economic and
social wellare and defense.
3- Government.
Government is an essential element of the state. It is the agency through which the will of the
state is formulated, expressed and realized. It is the duty of the government to protect the
sovereignty and integrity of the state, maintain law and order, protect citizens from external
aggression, solve the dispute among citizen and work for the all-round development of the
people. Hence Government is crucial because there can be no civilized existence without it
Government may vary from state to state.
4.Sovereignty.
The word sovereignty is derived from the Latin word "superanus" which means supreme or
paramount. Although the term sovereignty is modern, yet the idea of sovereignty goes back to
Aristotle who spoke of the ' supreme power of the state'. In this technical form it was first
used by the French writer Bodin in his book Republic'. According to Bodin "sovereignty is the
supreme power of state over citizens and subjects unrestrained by law."Sovereignty is the
most important characteristic which distinguishes the state from all other organizations. Ihe
state is supreme, and it is above all individuals as well associations. In one word we can say
Sovereighty denotes the supremacy of the state internally and externally. Hence the conceps
23


النص الأصلي

الصفحة ١
(1)
An Introduction
This book seeks to introduce students to some analytical scopes of political science through
debates of research, theory, comparative, and international politics inquiries within the discipline.
The goal of this book to help students to think analytically about politics. In addition, political
science is organized into many specialized groups. For instance, Political science has a variety of
subfields. Each subfield focuses on a set of questions. The major subficlds include. Comparative
polítics, focusing on examining how different political systems operate. It can include
comparisons of systems at a macro or micro level, that is, comparing general political structures
or focusing on individual elements of political systems. For example, comparative politics can
include a comparison of how democratic and authoritarian political structures differ, as well as a
comparison of how specific rules governing campaign contributions differ from one country to the
next. International relations, focusing on relationships between and among states. Unlike
comparative politics, which zeroes in on how government or politics operates within a country,
international relations studies what transpires between states. Its subject matter includes war,
regional integration, international organizations, military alliances, economic pacts, ani so on
Ellen Grigsby, Analyzing Politics, Cengage Learning, 2014, p.16
3.


الصفحة ٢
Fubic policy, studying how laws, regulations, and other policies are formulated, implemented
policy
mof onint :
necessary? How can policies be designed to meet specific needs effecrively? What contributes to
a policy's effectiveness? Why are ineffective policies sometimes continued rather than
and evaluated. This subficld looks closely at such questions as, what makes a
discontinued? What should be the standards for evaluating policies??
The Distinction between Public Administration and Public Management
Public management and public administration used interchangeably. Public management looke
closely at the implementation of policies, procedures, and actions of administration considerine
management in private and non-profit sectors. Public administration traditionally has been
connected to government offices or public service.' Administration is most often concerned with
determining goals, objectives, and purpose while management functions to achieve the goals set
by the administration. A closer look at administration and management reveals various degrees
of difference
What is
Administration: Determines policy, procedures, goals and objectives.
Political
Management Carries follows or carries out the policy, procedures, goals, and objecune
dimension
set by administration.
Greece (a
Politics, w
athid, p.16
htps://grtarealdegree.com/what-is-the-difference-between-public-management-and-public-adininistraon
+https://petarealdegree.com/what-is-the-difference-between-public-management-and-public-administrau/
Shps://entarraldegree.com/what-is-the-difference-between-public-management-and-public-administratu
city was ti
4.


الصفحة ٣
Administration Is usually a top-level authority. "Management: Is usually a middle-level
authority.
. Administration: Has long related to government office, military organization, or
educational organtzation.
• Managemrnt: Has long related to business enterprises in the private or non-profit
sectors.
Administration Has been traditionally seen as making decisions based on politics, public
opinion, or government policies
Management: Has been traditionally seen as making decisions based on personal values,
opinions of managers, or the value to the bottom line profits.
Administration: Handles the business of the organization. ton me
Management: Handles the relationships among employees. b set
ngt atsds si
What is Political Science?
m lowirhe frpem be
Political Science is one of the number of titles for the academic study of politics in all its
dimensions. As an academic discipline the subject is very old, which can be traced back to ancient
Greece (about 500 to 300 BC). The term Political Science is intimately related to the word
Politics, which itself derives from the Greek word 'Polis' meaning a city-state. To the Greeks the
city was the state and the subject that deals with the city-state and its problems was designated


الصفحة ٤
study of control relation:
as polties The Scholirs in Athens were the fitst to deal with peoblems af city-state and thes
dnif social control In
explained a political theory Later, Socrates (470-3998.C), Plato (428-347 B.C) and An
systematic and rigo
(4 3218 C) continued to concuct the scientific study of the various prohlents concerni
emplasis of politic
state and the government. Aristotle, the world famous Greek philosopher, however excelled Li
question that beh
teacher Plato and his teacher's teacher - Socrates. Now Aristotle is regarded as the father ofe
behave in the wa
science of Polities in the west, 7 Political Science is the study of State, government and polities
American Politic
A State is an entiry possessing a permanent population, a defined territory, a government
commanding obedience, the capacity to deal with other States. Government is the politiesl
(as) the study of
organization through which the collective will of the people is formulated, expressed and
perspectives".
executed. As a matter of fact, the state operates through the government machinery. Governmenr
of human relati
is also defined as an organization thar possesses the legitimate means of coercion in a society.
Is Political
Politics can be simply defined as the activity by which differing interests within a given unit of
Political scien
nule are conciliated by giving them a share in power in proportion to their importance to the
welfare and survival of the whole community. According to Paul Janet Political science is that
of living hun
branch of social science which treats the foundations of the State and the principles
so must his
of
government, Catlin defines Political science as the study of "the act of human and social control of
his manifol
It is the hur
DavidLSilla, Interrnational Encyciopedia of the Social Sciences, Volume 8; Volume 15,1977
Mutra N.Rathbard, It all began, as unual, with the Greeks February 11, 2006, https://misesorg/lihrary/it-all-bege
al geka
p//www.apenetu/upenlearn/people-politics-law/politics-policy-peaple/what-politics/content-section-212
N.Jarapalan. Canprehensive Mudern Palitcal Analysis 2002.p2
10 by Hertra


الصفحة ٥
sruly of control relatiomship of wills". German writera regand it as the stiuly concerning the problem of power
dal coitrsr In the early 1950s and the 1960s, a behavioral revelution stressed tle pend fe
avitematie und rigoroualy scientific study of individunl and group behavior. This has shifred the
emphasis of political studies away from tradicional legal-fnstitutional manifestationt. The centril.
guestion that behaviouralists ask is: "Why do individuals, institutional actors and nation-era
behave in the way they dor" Behaviouralists are interested in establishing pattern of catisation
American Political scientist Hrold D. Lasswell defines "Political Science as an empirical discipline,
(as) the study of the shaping and sharing of power and a political act (as) one performed in power
perspectives". Robert A. Dahl defines palitical system as follows: "A political system is any pattern
of human relationships that involve, to a significant extent, however, rule or authority", 10
Is Political Science a Science?
Political science deals with men and it is a living subject matter which can be explained in terms
of living human activity. It cannot be expressed in fixed or static formulac. Man is dynamic, and
so must his institutions be. They must adjust themselves with the changing demands of man and
his manifold needs. No institution is today what it was yesterday and what it will be tomorrow.
It is the human element or the livingness of the subject which makes Political Science inexact and
*by Bertrand Hadie, Dirk Herg-Schlosser, Lenniardo Morlino, International Encyclopadia of Political Science 2011, p137


الصفحة ٦
indefinite." Does a science involve merely systematic reasoning, or must the reasoning be
and the conclusions clearly defined and subject to no exceptions as in the case of natural science
forms and functions
Does the claim of Political Science to be science involve the power to predict the political f
Science also include
Natural scientists argue that political science cannot be a science because-
institutions in a socie
is why we study, in !
O The variables in political science are not all subject to measurement.
Study of Natior
O Unlike natural scientists, political scientists cannot set
up experiments with
into small city-stat
what are apparently the same fngredients, in the same conditions and produce
the meaning of the
the same results.
is nor limired to
O Political scientists can never accurately predict.
problems Stuc
Scope of Political Science: Political Science is, thus, an organized body of knowledge the
Political Science
facts of which have been scientifically and systematically observed, collected and classified, and
course of develo
from rhese facts are formulated and proved a series of propositions or principles which forms the
institutions and
basis of the science" Study of State and Government. Political Science is the science of
Study of the
the State and the Government, it conducts the scientific study of both the State and the
Government. It deals with the nature and formation of the State and tries to understand various
topic of the lat
known definit
Bertell Ollman, What is Political Science? Whut Should it Be
Attps//www.nyuedu/projecta/ollman/docr/what.poly.ucL.php
12 Frank Healey, Richard A Chapman, Michael Sheehan, Elements in Political Sclence, Edinburgh Univeraity Press 2006,
14 https://www.
15 http://www.
sclence.html
p.12
16 http://www.
hto //www.
sclence html
http://www.ejbas.com/Data/Sites/1/vol2ne10januaryz014/ejba-1321-14-thesocialsciencesandthescientificstudy pdf


الصفحة ٧
iorms and funcrions of the Government " Study of Institutions. The scope of Folitical
Seience, also tncludes the study of associations and institutions. There are many tyres of
institutionu in a society and the State an institution that stands supteme controls all of them This
is why we study, in Political Science, these institutions along with the State Is
Study of National and International Problems. In ancient times Greece was divided
Into small city-states and the affairs related to those city-states were known as politics. But now
the meaning of the word "politics" is not considered to be so narrow. These days Political Science
is nor limited to the city-states only, but it deals with the national and the international
problems, 16 Study of Past, Present and Future Development of State. Scope of
Political Science is not restricted to the study of past and present alone, but it directs the future
elil
course of development of the State. It gives timely suggestions with a view to improving political
institutions and modifying political activities to meet the new dimensions of the changing world
Study of the Concept of Power. With the behavioral revolution in politics, the central
topic af the latest study in Political Science has become the study of the power. Probably the best-
known definition of power is that of Max Weber (1864-1920) who characterized power as the
4 https://www.paliact.washington.edu/what-political'sclence
3 http://www.preservearticles.com/2014072233519/political-scietice-natire-scope-and-methads-of-political-
science.html
16 hutp //www.hlstoryguide.org/ancient/lenhtal
http://www.preservearti:um/2014072233519/poltical setettce-nature-scopeand-methads of-political-
acience htm!


الصفحة ٨
chance of a man or several men to realize own will in a communal action cven against th
xpecimental in the sen
resistance of others who are participating in the action."
have proved its fitness
3 Historical M
Methods of Political Science:
The methods of investigation employed in political science are
The present is the gif
the origin, developm
1- Observational Method:
Government. The
This method is based on direct observation and reflection. It helps in arriving at certain political
Savigny, Seeley, M.
principle in the light of observation made and information obtained. In the olden times Plato
method. Sabine ans
visited all the progressive countries right from Asia to southern Italy, He closely studied the social
political theory" ac
economic and political conditions of these countries and then could be able to propound certain
It is therefore es
principles to Political Science. In modern times James Brice employed this method. He visited the
produced".
USA, Canada, France, Switzerland, Australia and New Zealand, studied the people and their
4- Compara
countries. clearly observed the workings of their institurions and formed his own conclusion
The comparativ
2- Experimental Method:
general laws an
Experiment is obeervation under conditions arranged by the investigator. We may not
comparison anc
experiment in Political Science as we do in a Physical Science, but practical experiments in
many as 158 ca
palitical institutions are being constantly made, consciously or unconsciously. Every government
conclusions.
mukes experiments when it adopts a policy or enacts a new law. Governmental policy changet
Tocqueville, B
and laws are amended or repealed if their public utility is not abundantly proved. Dr. Gamt
countries and
rightly affirms that "the enactment of every new law, the catablishment of every new policy
http://aciencnjraskar/papes/10774/Political-Science-Discipline-Political-Science html
hps//www.coursehern.cum/fla/tga-observational-Method-This-method-ts-based-on-direct-observatie
and/
2 httn //wwwrF
seienee atml
hipe //hallb
4Eugne Nwe
hnnyt tate Ur
10


الصفحة ٩
experimental in the sense that it is regarded mercly as provisional or tentative until the read
have proved its fieness to become permanent. 20
5- Statistic
3 Historical Method:
The method w
The present is the gift of the past, This is the reason why we seek help of history, when we stu
the origin, development and the present nature of such political institution as the State and th
Government. The historical method supplements the experimental method. Montescquie
Savigny, Seeley, Maine Freeman and Laski are some of the eminent exponents of historical
method. Sabine and other traditional writers attached great importance historical approach. "A
study of politi
quantitative
statistical te
relations. In
framed and
political theory" according to Sabine is always advanced in reference to a pretty specific siru
degree of as
Ir is therefore essential to understand "the time, place and circumstances in which ir
6- Phil
produced". 21
In Politic
4- Comparative Method:
human n
The comparative method which is closely related to historical method, attempts to discover
function
general laws and conclusions from the study of past or existing States by a process of selection
exponer
comparison and elimination. Greek philosopher Aristotle (384-322B.C) is said to have studied as
on the
State, a
many as 158 constitutions and after analyzing and comparing them, he arrived at certain definite
conclusions. In modern times comparative method has been used by Montesquieu, De
Impo
Tocqueville, Bryce and many others. James Bryce compared the working of democracy in different
Now-
countries and then, accounted for its merits and defects as a form of government.
lives.
22
a du
20 http://www.preservearticles.com/2014072233519/political-science-nature-scope-and-methods-of-political-
science.html
2 https://ballbhandoutnotes.wordpress.com/tag/historical-method-of-political-science/
22 Eugene Nweke and Nkwachukwu Orji (eds.) A Handbook of Political Science, Abakaliki: Department of Political Science
Ebonyi State University, 2009.
righ
23 w
24 hi
11


الصفحة ١٠
5- Statistical Method:
The method which has recently become increasingly important and is being widely used in the
we study
udy of political phenomenon is the statistical method, It attempts to describe and measure in
and the
quantitative terms and is specially to the study of political parties and public opinion. The
ratistical techniques extended to the study of comparative government and international
squieu
relations, In some Western countries "public opinion polls" or "Gallup polls" are held. If skillfully
storical
framed and conducted, such polls have shown themselves, in UK and USA, to be capable of a high
ch. "A
23
degree of accuracy.
tion"
6- Philosophical Method
was
In Political Science this method of investigation starts from some abstract original idea about
human nature and draws deduction from that idea as to the nature of the State, its aims, its
functions and its future. Plato Rousseau, Hegel, Bradley, Kant, and Sidgwick are prominent
exponents of this method. When dealing with the question "what ought to be" we must depend
ver
on the philosophical method. Almost all political thinkers, who wished to be organized an ideal
State, adopted this method. 24
as
Importance of Studying Political Science:
Now-a-days we cannot think ourselves outside the State. The State is ever present in our everyday
lives. As a citizen we have specific roles and responsibilities towards the State. The State has also
a duty to uphold the rights of the citizens. By studying political science, we come to know our
rights and obligations in the State, All modern States have grown and capacity in recent years.
2www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR17/kura.pdf
4 https://www.andrew.cmu.edu//Popper%20-%20The%200pen%20Society.
12


الصفحة ١١
Most states have extended their roles and responsibilities from primarily defense and law and
order concerns to concerns about everyday economic management, welfare services and the
egulation of many aspects of social life. Studying Political Science helps us realize the
multifarious functions the State,
Dalirical Science inlorms the learners with dilferent forms of government and their relutive
aualities and demerits, It also shed light on the political systems and governments of other
countries of the world thereby enabling the learners to assess their own government and political
system in the contemporary context Political knowledge provides the social glue that binds rhe
citizens to his or her political system. Regimes of any kind do not last for long without political
support. Polirical support relies upon people recognizing the validity of their political arguments.
As ane writer puts it: "Presidents are not respected, laws are not obeyed, taxes are not pald.
political stability does not prevail- unless people believes", 25
Political Science is the branch of knowledge that deals with systematic study of the structure
and behavior of the state and political institutions through scientific analysis, It is an academic
discipline concerned with man's official institutions and activities, such as the state, government,
citizenship, public affairs etc. In other words, it is a social science concerned with the theory,
description, analysis and prediction of political behavior, political activities. Politics refers to the
subject matter of our study, science denotes the methodology or the way of studying the process
of politics. The first term seeks to answer the question what is studied' and the second term
Barrie Axlord, Gary K. Browning Richard Hugvins, Ben Rogamond, John Turner, John Turner, Politics: An Introducton.
Routledge, 2005, p43
13


الصفحة ١٢
services anvd t
s us realize th
bow is it studied. Therefore, the political phenomenon which should be studied in
vecordance with a definite plan or system is called political science
d their relative
Political Science is About:7
nents of othe



  • Society: -It may be defined as 'the complex of organized association and institution within
    t and political
    a community". It is an unorganized or organized, it is wider or nartow groups of human
    beings living together in a arca. The social instinct of man compels him to live in society.
    hat binds the
    According to Laski, by society, "a group of human beings living together for the
    out political
    satisfaction of their mutual wants'. 28
    arguments
    State is politically organized under a common law within a prescribe boundaries. It
    2-
    re not paid,
    stands for the protection to life, liberty and property to individuals and it tries to promote
    human welfare and good life.29
    3- Government: It is the institutionalized power of state or authority. It is the agent
    structure
    through which the will of the state is formulated, expressed and realized. It consists of
    academic
    institutions responsible for making collective decisions for society.
    ernment

    1. Politics: is the study of state and activity of person involved with the state i.e government.
      theory,
      It refers to the current problems of state and government, the actual process of
      s to the
      cooperation, conflict and competition for power in society.

    2. Science: is the systematic study of the structure and behavior of the physical and natural
      is difficult to give a specific definition to political science, because of its varying scope in
      wboids
      process
      d term
      world through observation, evidence and experiment. Definitions of Political Science It
      inon line abod
      27 https://books.google.com.eg/books?isbn=D0191619795
      28 Pathak, Education in the Emerging India,2007, p.81
      29 http://www.universityofcalicut.info/syl/PoliticalScience.pdf
      26 www.britannica.com/topic/political-science
      cjon
      14
      nd law and



الصفحة ١٣
different situations. Let us examine some of those definitions
lanet Polirical science is that part of science which treats of the foundations of
state and the principles of government".
Lasswell- political science is the study of shaping and sharing of power"
Durid Eisten- "Political science is the study of the authoritative allocation of values fer a
society". "Political Science begins and ends with the state - Gamer
-Political Science deals with government only" - Leacock
Science of polis- Aristotle Science of state - Gettle
Politics deals with government – Lecock Authoritative allocation of values -Easton
Politics is the struggle for and use of power Morgenthau
central theme of Political
From the above definitions we may conclude that the 'state' i t
Science. It is the study about the state, its origin, its nature, its structure, its functions.
Approaches to the study of Political Science:
According to Van Dyke , the word ' approach' is define to denote the criteria employed in
selecting the questions to ask and the data to consider in political inquiry." In political science.
different scholars and students employ different criteria to analyze the data and find out the
answers of the questions These criteria have been designated as approach. "
1- Normative Approach.
In the normative or classical period, political problems were analyzed philosophically. The
method was deductive, and the approach was normative. In this period the ethical basis and moral



الصفحة ١٤
ions of
purpose of the political community was analyzed in detail by the political philosophers. The
purpose of this approach is to clarify the words and terms used by the political philosophers. They
nent roo much of their times on the problems of ends and means and in describing the ideal state.
ies for a
The interpretation of normative approach in political activities evokes interests in the mind of the
srudents of political science. It studies the state, government, and man on political being is fully
mixed with the pursuit of certain goals, morals, truths, or high principles. The writings of Plato,
Hobbes, Locke, Bentham and Hegel have the characteristics of the classical period. They were very
On
particular in finding the standards or values of life like justice, freedom and happiness."
2-Philosophical Approach.
Philosophical approach is another traditional or classical approach to the study of political
science. It is one of the oldest approaches to the study of politics and known as speculative or
ethical or metaphysical approach. The philosophical approach attempts to find the truths of
political events or incidents. It is mainly concerned with the analysis of the nature and
d in
fundamental attributes of the state, the concept of political obligations, the nature of political
authority and other problems of philosophical in nature. The purpose of philosophical approach
nce.
is to clarify the words and terms used by the political philosophers. It explores the objective of
the
political writings or the purpose of political writer. It also aims to enhance linguistic clarity and
h. 30
reduce linguistic confusion. This method starts with assumptions about the nature and end of the
state based on philosophical ground.
he
ral
31
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16


الصفحة ١٥
3- Historical Approach.
Historical approach is another traditional approach of studying political science. History
a best kind of laboratory for political science It is the store-house of the past incidents
pertaining to human life The study of history gives Us not only information about what happened
tce but aleo about the utility and futility of various institutions of various times the
approach
the
chief
method
historical
as
of
studying
political
phenomena. History not only explains institutions, but it helps us to make certain deduction for
future guidance. History tells us how government, political parties and many other
institutions worked, their successes and failures and from these we receive lessons whịch guide
for the future course of action The approach is reached on the assumption that political science
emerged out of socioeconomic crisis as well as the reactions they leave on the minds of the great
thinkers.
4- Institutional Approach.
The institutional approach shows a shift in the scope, methods, and objective of the discipline of
political science. It gives importance to the study of formal as well as informal structure of
political institutions like executive, legislature, judiciary, political parties, pressure and interests
groups etc. in political system. It is also known as saructural approach. 3
Political science began to study formal governmentalinstitution The nature and structure of the
legally constiruted institutions became the subject matter of political science Political
www.universityofcalicutinfo/tyl/PoliticalScience pdf
i www.uriversityofcalicut.info/syl/PoliticalScience.pdf
17


الصفحة ١٦
History
nhilosophers began to study the historical evolution of various political institurions. In the words
acidents
of Dyke, the study of politics is the study of the state or of government and related institutions,M
Ppened
Washy says, " The emphasis of the institutional or structural approach is almost exclusively on
32, the
the formal aspects of government and politics. Since various institutions constitute the structure
litical
ef the socicty it is also called structural approach.' After analyzing properly, the actual functions
on for
of various institutions political philosophers compared them with other institutions,
ether
Comparative study of the merits and demerits of the different systems like unitary and federal,
uide
parliamentary and presidential territorial and proportional representation was made by the
nce
political philosophers of the institutional period. The emphasis was on the importance of the
governmental institutions and practice in promoting social conditions and realizing moral and
eat
political purposes. The advocates of institutional approach do not consider the impact of
institutions or rules upon the individuals. Without individuals the institutions have no practical
importance, thus it has been vehemently criticized.
5-Behavioral Approach.
Behaviouralism is one of the most important developments in the study of political science. In the
20th century. It is also considered to be a new or modern approach to the study of political science.
Really, the approach started with a protest movement of American political scientists against the
traditional study of political science. They believed that the traditional approaches totally
neglected the political phenomena. Therefore, they developed a new approach for the careful
study of political phenomena, i.e behavior approach.



  • www.universityofcalicut.info/syl/PoliticalScience.pdf
    18


الصفحة ١٧
They began to adopt the methods of natural sciences like observation, survey and measurement
et scienice Behavioralism (or behaviouralism) is an approach in political science, which
emerged in the 1930s in the United States as a result of dissatisfaction of the then existing
approaches. Following the Second Warld War through until the 1960s, behavioralism was a
source of controversy. It was the site of discussion betwecen traditionalist and new emesging
approaches to political science
Tha arigins of behavioralism is often attributed to the work of University of Chicago professor
Charles Merriam, who emphasized the importance of examining political behavior of individuals
and groups rather than only considering how they abide by legal or formal rules Prior to the
"behavioralist revalution', political science being a science at all was disputed. Critics saw the
study of politics as being primarily qualitative and normative, and claimed that it lacked a
scientific method necessary to be deemed a science. Behavioralists used strict methodology and
empirical research to validate their study as a social science, The behavioralist approach was
innovative because it changed the attitude of the purpose of inquiry. It moved toward research
that was supported by verifiable facts "
The existing division between the traditional and behavioral approach is based on the views
shared by the followers of each approach in term of research interest, advancements of
generalization in the sub discipline, subscription to ethical values and devotion to academic
excellence. However, both approuches and so many other approaches to the study of political
acience are equally committed to creating an understanding for political process, identifying and
improving on the perfect' political system and generally purifying the study of politics."
hetp //profgoodlucktaiking blornt.com.eg/2015/03/behavioural-approach.html
34 http://prufgoordctetalug blogspot.com.eg/2015/03/behavioural-appriach htmi
19


الصفحة ١٨
nce, whic
The behavioral approach is really based on the assumption that political institutions and nature
n existing
of political events are largely determined by the nature and behavior of the people. The political
sm was
behavior of individuals and groups may determine the mode of operation of the state itself. So, the
emerging
esence of the behaviouralist approach is its central focus on political behavior of individuals.
The behaviouralist attempt to understand political phenomena realistically in term of observed
and observable data. It is the explanation, formulation and hypothesisation of the observed and
rofessor
ohservable behavior of men in respect of the governance of the country. The use of more and more
vidualh
scientific means inspired several political philosophers to consider political science as a value free
to the
science. That means they aim at the creation of a systematic casual theory and not a value theory.
w the
The State:
ked a
y and
The term State' occupies the highest place and central theme in the study of political
Was
science. The modern term "state" is derived from the word "status". The Greeks used the word
arch
Polis' to denote the 'city-state'. In political science the term 'state' we mean an association of
people who live within a geographical area under an organized government and subject to no
ws
outside control. State is an institution to ensure law and order and maintain harmony of social
of
relations. It creates those conditions, which are necessary for the development of individual
al
personality. It creates laws and rules to regulate human behavior. It stands for the welfare of
society as whole and protect the rights and life of citizen from internal and external disturbances
or war. In the scientific sense of the term "the state means a collection of human beings occupying
20
emene


الصفحة ١٩
a delinite territory, organized under a govermmenE upreme within the country and det to o
outside control
Definitions of State:
The term state has heen defined dillerently by various political thinkers fony dt
popular definitions atc given below:
1 Woodrow Wilson-"The state is a people organized for law withina definite teitory
2- HJ. Laskd- "State is a territorial society divided into government and subject daiming
with its allotted physical area, a supremacy over all other institutions".
3- Bluntschli- "The state is politically organized people of a definite territory".
The Modern Conception of the State:
Almond used the term political system' instead of the state. According to him' political system
is the system of interactions to be found in all independent societies which perform the functions
of integration and adaptation (both internally and vis-a-vis other societies)
Elements of the State:
The above definitions given by various writers show that there are four elements of a state
ramely Population, Territory, Government and Sovereignty, Of these four elements, the hirst two
21


الصفحة ٢٠
are physical, the third political and the fourth spiritual. The essential four elements are discutsed
territor
below.
social
1 Population:
3- Gc
Since state is a human institution and highest of all human associations there can be
Goven
state without human beings state can exist in an uninhabited land. There is no limir
state
number of citizens in a state. in the modern times the scholars have not submitted to fir
sover
upper or lower limits of population. Their number should either be too small to be self.
aggr
sufficient nor too large to be well governed.
peop
The People's Republic of China is the largest state in respect of population and San Marino in
Gow
Italy is the smallest The modern state gives preference to the big size population because, the
4.S
bigger the population, the greater will be its man power. They can fight for a longer period
The
during the war period.
par
2Territory.
Ar
A modern state cannot exist without territory. The largest state in size is the former U.3.0A
us
whose area covered about one by sixth of the world, whereas Vatican in Rome has an atek
St
about 4 square miles. The advantage of small state is that they remain compact and e
IT
governed. But at the same time, they are at great disadvantage as in the matters of difference
and natural rescources. But size is no index of greatness. Any how the modern age is of large
22


الصفحة ٢١
territorial state because a large state can mobilize all its resources for the economic and
social wellare and defense.
3- Government.
Government is an essential element of the state. It is the agency through which the will of the
state is formulated, expressed and realized. It is the duty of the government to protect the
sovereignty and integrity of the state, maintain law and order, protect citizens from external
aggression, solve the dispute among citizen and work for the all-round development of the
people. Hence Government is crucial because there can be no civilized existence without it
Government may vary from state to state.
4.Sovereignty.
The word sovereignty is derived from the Latin word "superanus" which means supreme or
paramount. Although the term sovereignty is modern, yet the idea of sovereignty goes back to
Aristotle who spoke of the ' supreme power of the state'. In this technical form it was first
used by the French writer Bodin in his book Republic'. According to Bodin "sovereignty is the
supreme power of state over citizens and subjects unrestrained by law."Sovereignty is the
most important characteristic which distinguishes the state from all other organizations. Ihe
state is supreme, and it is above all individuals as well associations. In one word we can say
Sovereighty denotes the supremacy of the state internally and externally. Hence the conceps
23

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