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We conducted a randomized, controlled clinical trial to test the efficacy of beta carotene and vitamins C and E in preventing colorectal adenoma, a precursor of invasive cancer.The lack of efficacy of these vitamins argues against the use of supplemental beta carotene and vitamins C and E to prevent colorectal cancer.the relative risk for beta carotene was 1.01 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.85 to 1.20); for vitamins C and E, it was 1.08 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.91 to 1.29).


Original text

We conducted a randomized, controlled clinical trial to test the efficacy of beta carotene and vitamins C and E in preventing colorectal adenoma, a precursor of invasive cancer.
We randomly assigned 864 patients, using a two-by-two factorial design, to four treatment groups, which received placebo, beta carotene (25 mg daily), vitamin C (1 g daily) and vitamin E (400 mg daily), or beta carotene plus vitamins C and E. In order to identify new adenomas, we performed complete colonoscopic examinations in the patients one year and four years after they entered the study. The primary end points for analyses were new adenomas identified after the first of these two follow-up examinations.
751 completed the four-year clinical trial. the relative risk for beta carotene was 1.01 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.85 to 1.20); for vitamins C and E, it was 1.08 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.91 to 1.29). Neither treatment appeared to be effective in any subgroup of patients or in the prevention of any subtype of polyp defined by size or location.
The lack of efficacy of these vitamins argues against the use of supplemental beta carotene and vitamins C and E to prevent colorectal cancer.

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