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Incretin Mimetics

Incretin effect is the difference in insulin secretory response from an oral glucose load in comparison to glucose administered intravenously. The incretin effect is responsible for 50–70% of total insulin secretion after oral glucose intake (35). The two naturally occurring incretin hormones that play important roles in the maintenance of glycemic control: glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP, or incretin) and glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1); these peptides have a short half-life, as these are rapidly hydrolyzed by DPP-4 inhibitors within 1½ min. In patients with T2DM, the incretin effect is reduced or absent. In particular, the insulinotropic action of GIP is lost in patients with T2DM. Incretins decrease gastric emptying and causes weight loss. Because of impact on weight loss, these medications may find increasing use in diabesity.

Targeting the incretin system has become an important therapeutic approach for treating T2DM. These two drug classes include GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors. Clinical data have revealed that these therapies improve glycemic control while reducing body weight (specifically, GLP-1 receptor agonists) and systolic blood pressure in patients with T2DM (36). Furthermore, hypoglycemia is low (except when used in combination with a sulfonylurea) because of their glucose-dependent mechanism of action.


Original text

Incretin Mimetics


Incretin effect is the difference in insulin secretory response from an oral glucose load in comparison to glucose administered intravenously. The incretin effect is responsible for 50–70% of total insulin secretion after oral glucose intake (35). The two naturally occurring incretin hormones that play important roles in the maintenance of glycemic control: glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP, or incretin) and glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1); these peptides have a short half-life, as these are rapidly hydrolyzed by DPP-4 inhibitors within 1½ min. In patients with T2DM, the incretin effect is reduced or absent. In particular, the insulinotropic action of GIP is lost in patients with T2DM. Incretins decrease gastric emptying and causes weight loss. Because of impact on weight loss, these medications may find increasing use in diabesity.


Targeting the incretin system has become an important therapeutic approach for treating T2DM. These two drug classes include GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors. Clinical data have revealed that these therapies improve glycemic control while reducing body weight (specifically, GLP-1 receptor agonists) and systolic blood pressure in patients with T2DM (36). Furthermore, hypoglycemia is low (except when used in combination with a sulfonylurea) because of their glucose-dependent mechanism of action.


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