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?Refining Hydrocarbons
?Today, many hydrocarbons are obtained from a fossil fuel called petroleum.In addition to breaking heavier hydrocarbons into molecules of the size range needed for gasoline, cracking also produces starting materials for the synthesis of many different products, including plastic products, films, and synthetic fabrics.Therefore, as the vapors travel up through the column, the hydrocarbons condense and are drawn off,

?This diagram of a fractional tower shows that fractions with lower boiling points, such as gasoline and gaseous products, are drawn off in the cooler regions near the top of the tower.Separation is carried out in a process called fractional distillation, also called fractionation, which involves boiling the petroleum and collecting components or fractions as they condense at different temperatures.Natural gas is composed primarily of methane, but it also contains small amounts of other hydrocarbons that have from two to five carbon atoms.In certain kinds of geological formations, the petroleum ran out of the shale and collected in pools deep in Earth's crust.Heat from Earth's interior and the tremendous pressure of overlying sediments transformed this mud into oil-rich shale and natural gas.?Fractional distillation
?Unlike natural gas, petroleum is a complex mixture containing more than a thousand different compounds.The condensation temperatures (boiling points) generally decrease as molecular mass decreases.Unfortunately, fractional distillation towers, shown in Figure 7, do not yield fractions in the same proportions that they are needed.For example, distillation seldom yields the amount of gasoline desired.


Original text

‏Refining Hydrocarbons
‏Today, many hydrocarbons are obtained from a fossil fuel called petroleum. Petroleum formed from the remains of microorganisms that lived in Earth's oceans millions of years ago. Over time, the remains formed thick layers of mud-like deposits on the ocean floor. Heat from Earth's interior and the tremendous pressure of overlying sediments transformed this mud into oil-rich shale and natural gas. In certain kinds of geological formations, the petroleum ran out of the shale and collected in pools deep in Earth's crust. Natural gas, which formed at the same time and in the same way as petroleum, is usually found with petroleum deposits. Natural gas is composed primarily of methane, but it also contains small amounts of other hydrocarbons that have from two to five carbon atoms.
‏Fractional distillation
‏Unlike natural gas, petroleum is a complex mixture containing more than a thousand different compounds. For this reason, raw petroleum, sometimes called crude oil, has little practical use. Petroleum is much more useful to humans when it is separated into simpler components or fractions. Separation is carried out in a process called fractional distillation, also called fractionation, which involves boiling the petroleum and collecting components or fractions as they condense at different temperatures. Fractional distillation is done in a fractionating tower similar to the one shown in Figure 6 on the next page.
‏The temperature inside the fractionating tower is controlled so that it remains near
‏400°C at the bottom, where the petroleum is boiling, and gradually decreases toward the top. The condensation temperatures (boiling points) generally decrease as molecular mass decreases. Therefore, as the vapors travel up through the column, the hydrocarbons condense and are drawn off,


‏This diagram of a fractional tower shows that fractions with lower boiling points, such as gasoline and gaseous products, are drawn off in the cooler regions near the top of the tower. Oils and greases, having much higher boiling points, stay near the bottom of the tower and are drawn off there.
‏Figure 6 also gives the names of the typical fractions separated from petroleum, along with their boiling points, hydrocarbon size ranges, and common uses. You might recognize some of the fractions because you use them every day. Unfortunately, fractional distillation towers, shown in Figure 7, do not yield fractions in the same proportions that they are needed. For example, distillation seldom yields the amount of gasoline desired. However, it yields more of the heavier oils than the market demands.
‏Many years ago, petroleum chemists and engineers developed a process to help match the supply with the demand. This process in which heavier fractions are converted to gasoline by breaking their large molecules into smaller molecules is called cracking.
‏Cracking is done in the absence of oxygen and in the presence of a catalyst. In addition to breaking heavier hydrocarbons into molecules of the size range needed for gasoline, cracking also produces starting materials for the synthesis of many different products, including plastic products, films, and synthetic fabrics.


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