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The developers of modern avionics for aircraft focus on safety and management issues , make them safer, and more effective.According to the "Heavily reliant on global satellite positioning of aircraft in flight and on the ground, NextGen combines GPS technology with automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast technology (ADS-B) for traffic separation" (Soundar, 2013). NextGen is a future perspective for avionics development by 2025. Advantages of the modern communication and navigation systems
A voice communication is a priority in comparison with the dedicated radio channels in the modern aircraft management. One cannot deny that the modern aircraft needs a combination of digital and analog communications. Radio communications are the priority in the modern aircraft. These technologies are implemented in the modern aircraft. Radios are also embedded in pilots and ground controllers (for example, pilot-to-ground and pilot-to-pilot radios). The aircraft controllers send the required information to the pilots via the radio signals. The flight crew has also access to radio signals. Another key concern for the modern developers of avionics is a transponder. This device is used for machine-to-machine communications. Such data as altitude to ground, range position information and other related data are under consideration in the modern researches and studies. The key advantage of the transponders is as follows, "All modern transponders in controlled airspace use either Mode C or Mode S transponders that report pressure altitude--this removes the human-to-human, pilot-to-controller communication burden to constantly report current altitude to air traffic controllers" (Soundar, 2013)
In the nearest future, the U.S. Army special operations helicopters will be equipped with the modern avionics focused on the enhancement of the aircraft capabilities.Retrieved from http://www.aia-aerospace.org/wpcontent/uploads/2016/12/AIA_StateOfIndusrtyReport_2016_V8.pdf You do not have an in-text citation for this entry.Retrieved from https://books.google.ae/books?id=Gp55CgAAQBAJ&lpg=PA217&ots=5x3U-_Os7C&vq=%E2%80%A2%20Barreveld%2C%20D.%20(2015).%20Aircraft%20Crash%20Investigations.%20Lulu%20Press.&dq=%E2%80%A2%20Barreveld%2C%20D.%20(2015).%20Aircraft%20Crash%20Investigations.%20Lulu%20Press.&hl=ar&pg=PA217#v=snippet&q=%E2%80%A2%20Barreveld%2C%20D.%20(2015).%20Aircraft%20Crash%20Investigations.%20Lulu%20Press.&f=false
Colucci, F. (2003, February).With the improvement of avionics, the aircraft will facilitate the logistics demands on aircraft exploitation.Further, the key focus is on current changes in the area of avionics, such as the NextGeneration program, technologies of voice/radio communication, the Global Positioning System (GPS), The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS), Automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B), fully integrated software-configurable single radio system and others.Most avionics and jet engine manufacturers are able to leverage high-bandwidth SATCOM services to send and receive operational data from aircraft systems.Another step forward is the development of innovative airworthiness systems with built-in remote concentrators, the development of a multifunctional, fully integrated software-configurable single radio system (IMA / SDR / CNS), and implementing effective built-in controls to improve the level of errors control and maintenance of the aircraft.In addition, a ground-based Wi-Fi network for airlines can also improve communications between airline flight crews and ground staff through the transmission of real-time aircraft data and related analyses.Avionics of aircraft is equipped with the FAA Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS).Another efficient system used in aircraft communication and navigation is GPS.The Global Positioning System (GPS) helps pilots to identify the position, navigation and time procedures of the aircraft.Problem Statement
In comparison with the airframe or engine development, modern researchers in the field of aircraft industry focus on the avionics development.The Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System (ACARS) implements the digital signaling for the sending of short messages.One makes an emphasis on the implementation of digital technologies in the aircraft.4G LTE Bandwidth for airlines is gaining its popularity and many telecoms and avionics vendors intend to deliver high-speed fourth generation (4G) Long Term Evolution (LTE) Wi-Fi networks for airline passengers globally.Another technology used and implemented in the aircraft is ADS-B Automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B).Recommendations

The modern air traffic controlling system depends on a wide range of communication technologies to ensure safe, accurate, timely, and efficient operations of our global commercial aerospace systems."The technology is called common avionics architecture system-or CAAS-and will be installed on special operations MH-47G Chinooks, MH-60M Black Hawks, and MH/AH-6M Little Birds cockpits" (Colucci, 2003).The detection of messages transmitting information about the aircraft is important for the modern aviation industry.With the help of this technology, each aircraft can track its location and positioning.Aircraft Crash Investigations.The European aircraft industry implements the similar system, also known as Galileo.


Original text

interdiction


The developers of modern avionics for aircraft focus on safety and management issues , make them safer, and more effective. Further, the key focus is on current changes in the area of avionics, such as the NextGeneration program, technologies of voice/radio communication, the Global Positioning System (GPS), The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS), Automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B), fully integrated software-configurable single radio system and others. A wide range of instruments and technologies in the area of modern communication and navigation system are under consideration of this research. Both, advantages and disadvantages of the implemented systems one has to consider forecasting the nearest changes and innovations implementation efficiency in the given field.
This is not a summary. This is a good example of data gathering. However, you need to indicate who your source is. Then, you need to establish the environment in which you are going to conduct your research. Use select and relevant components from this source to support your summary. Be sure to properly cite your sources.

Problem Statement
In comparison with the airframe or engine development, modern researchers in the field of aircraft industry focus on the avionics development. The main challenge in the field of avionics is to improve solid-state electronics in the form of micro and nanotechnologies (Ulansky, 2015). There is a need for lighted devices, which are more reliable and efficient.

The Significance of the Problem


The development of avionics is a long-term process with deep historical roots. In the modern context, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) reveals the prognosis for future perspectives of the national airspace system (NAS). NextGen is a future program, which will the developers of avionics implement by 2022. Detailed analysis of the NAS, focused on the communication and navigational systems, is under consideration of the modern researches and studies in this field. The latest and innovative technologies are introduced to reach the most efficient systems of air traffic management. According to the “Heavily reliant on global satellite positioning of aircraft in flight and on the ground, NextGen combines GPS technology with automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast technology (ADS-B) for traffic separation” (Soundar, 2013). NextGen is a future perspective for avionics development by 2025.
Advantages of the modern communication and navigation systems
A voice communication is a priority in comparison with the dedicated radio channels in the modern aircraft management. One cannot deny that the modern aircraft needs a combination of digital and analog communications. Radio communications are the priority in the modern aircraft. These technologies are implemented in the modern aircraft. Radios are also embedded in pilots and ground controllers (for example, pilot-to-ground and pilot-to-pilot radios). The aircraft controllers send the required information to the pilots via the radio signals. The flight crew has also access to radio signals. Another key concern for the modern developers of avionics is a transponder. This device is used for machine-to-machine communications. Such data as altitude to ground, range position information and other related data are under consideration in the modern researches and studies. The key advantage of the transponders is as follows, “All modern transponders in controlled airspace use either Mode C or Mode S transponders that report pressure altitude—this removes the human-to-human, pilot-to-controller communication burden to constantly report current altitude to air traffic controllers” (Soundar, 2013)
In the nearest future, the U.S. Army special operations helicopters will be equipped with the modern avionics focused on the enhancement of the aircraft capabilities. “The technology is called common avionics architecture system-or CAAS-and will be installed on special operations MH-47G Chinooks, MH-60M Black Hawks, and MH/AH-6M Little Birds cockpits” (Colucci, 2003). With the improvement of avionics, the aircraft will facilitate the logistics demands on aircraft exploitation.
Another efficient system used in aircraft communication and navigation is GPS. The Global Positioning System (GPS) helps pilots to identify the position, navigation and time procedures of the aircraft. The European aircraft industry implements the similar system, also known as Galileo. The main advantages of GPS satellites are accumulation and processing of navigational data and analysis of the satellite constellation. The most avionics are equipped with GPS receivers. Avionics of aircraft is equipped with the FAA Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS). Another technology used and implemented in the aircraft is ADS-B Automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B). With the help of this technology, each aircraft can track its location and positioning. One makes an emphasis on the implementation of digital technologies in the aircraft. The Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System (ACARS) implements the digital signaling for the sending of short messages. The equipment on board and on the ground facilitates the aircraft services. Different changes during different stages of flight are under control if ACARS is implemented. The detection of messages transmitting information about the aircraft is important for the modern aviation industry. “ACARS interfaces with interactive display units in the cockpit, which flight crews can use to send and receive technical messages and reports to or from ground stations, such as a request for weather information, clearances, or the status of connecting flights” (Barreveld, 2015, you must have a page or a paragraph number for ).
The conceptual changes are implemented in respect to the modular avionics. The creation of new network architectures using effective interfaces (Ethernet, Fiber Channel, Wi-Fi, SpaceWire), development of functions, sensors, and elements ensuring the efficient design of dynamic structures. Another step forward is the development of innovative airworthiness systems with built-in remote concentrators, the development of a multifunctional, fully integrated software-configurable single radio system (IMA / SDR / CNS), and implementing effective built-in controls to improve the level of errors control and maintenance of the aircraft. The abovementioned systems refer to algorithms processing radio signals. There is a growing tendency of unification for the onboard radio system based on IMA. The creation of joint principles should focus on the systemic modules unification, development of protocols for the systemic components interaction and perform the functions of the system on a single computing basis.
There is a number of advantages of a single radio system IMA / SDR / CNS. First, this system is able to improve the processing of numerous characteristics, check and correct faults and errors, reduce the number of antennas if the software is improved. According to the research by these systems can be considered: hydraulic, power supply, fuel, chassis release, air conditioning air, cabin pressure regulation, wheel braking, control taxiing device, oxygen, auxiliary power unit, fire-fighting and smoke alarm, anti-icing doors and hatches, headlight system and others” (Barreveld, 2015). Of course, there is another challenge to ensure the effective operation of these systems if united in a single onboard network. There is a need for appropriate mathematical models and algorithms, improvement of the operating conditions, facilitation of different modules and operating components, errors control and correction, and other related steps. The safety and regulation of flights depend on the improved communication and navigation systems.
The modern aircraft cockpits are designed with respect to the improvement of its efficiency. Therefore, the modern designers and manufacturers focus on the complex approach to the development of cockpits and improvement of avionics.
Disadvantages of the modern communication and navigation systems
CCD is another integrative component of the avionics. Functions focused on fault control are supported by the modern software and use a single-based computing basis. The main point is to reach a common computing between signals and a pilot’s responses to them. The appropriate solutions depend on the pilot’s proficiency, but, at the same time, there is a number of disadvantages, which can occur as the result of a pilot’s misbehavior. First, resources redistribution and adequate functioning of the devices can hamper the performance of a flight. For example, a pilot can inadequately perceive the main parameters of the aircraft movement or information from airborne and external sources. The modern communication and navigation systems should ensure a rational distribution of functions between the crew and aircraft systems to create favorable conditions for the formation of a manned crew consisting of one pilot. There is a need for improving the methods of information support for the crew and management of the information field and the aircraft systems. Another challenge is the air-ground-to-air information exchange. From this perspective, it is relevant to focus on the standardization of new technical solutions.

Alternative Actions

To improve the technology of onboard equipment complexes design, one should ensure the required level of flight safety and reduce the cost of creating the CCD CS. Therefore, it is necessary to use the most promising design technologies that meet the following requirements: compliance with the generally accepted world standards and certification and implementation of the specification system in compliance with the requirements of the world's leading aircraft manufacturers. Automation of the development processes is another key to the solution of this problem.
Currently, one of the most effective ways out is the use of V-shaped technology, which separates design levels and involves verification and validation at all stages of the life cycle. According to the automation of design, the modern aircraft industry requires the creation of end-to-end automated technologies for the development of the CCD based on the tracking of the current world-wide NTD using the system of specifications common to the world's leading aircraft manufacturers and tracking requirements. Another step forward is the development of integrated automation tools for the CCD model design and identification of the requirements system and automatic generation of configuration data. Automation of design involves the creation of the IMA resource database. This enables development of the CCD architecture, interface and cyclograms check. The modern manufacturers of communication and navigation systems refer to the mathematical models of various levels. The implementation of CCD aircraft based on the integrated modular avionics of the second generation will significantly increase the efficiency of the CCD.
Another effective technology in this area is ACARS, which can send messages over VHF if a VHF ground station network exists in the current area of the aircraft. ACARS messages using VHF data links use the band 117.975–137 MHz. SATCOM Airborne satellite communications (SATCOM) systems use either geostationary or orbiting satellites. With a geostationary system, the satellite remains in a fixed position relative to a given geographical location and orbits with the Earth to maintain this position. An orbiting communications satellite moves in an orbit that passes above a given geographical location at periodic time intervals. SATCOM requires a transmitter mounted on an aircraft and uses a radio signal to send a message to the satellite-mounted transponder. The message may be stored in the satellite for later forwarding or immediately forwarded to a receiver or transmitter with a receiving capability (transceiver) mounted on another aircraft or ground station (earth station) that can be connected with the terrestrial telephone system. For example, Inmarsat is a geostationary system that has four operational satellites. One satellite is located over the Pacific Ocean, another over the Indian Ocean, and two provide coverage over the Atlantic Ocean. This system provides the universal coverage since the satellites are all close to the equator and have overlapping regions of coverage around the globe, centered along the equator. Inmarsat offers a wide range of service formats, including voice, facsimile, and high-speed data mediated by the same satellites. This service is “end-to-end” and can supply the quality of a service similar to voice-over-IP (VoIP) telephone connections, where the sender and receiver can communicate in almost real time. All voice services can be used in parallel to the packet data services. Inmarsat connections are secured and compatible with government-grade encryption and secure communications standards. For example, airline passengers see SATCOM connections when they have Wi-Fi access during their flight. Most avionics and jet engine manufacturers are able to leverage high-bandwidth SATCOM services to send and receive operational data from aircraft systems. Modern SATCOM systems can support shared-channel IP packet switched service of up to 492 kbit/s. 4G LTE Bandwidth for airlines is gaining its popularity and many telecoms and avionics vendors intend to deliver high-speed fourth generation (4G) Long Term Evolution (LTE) Wi-Fi networks for airline passengers globally. China Mobile together with Alcatel Lucent and Air China intends to deploy a similar system in China. Regarding the infrastructure costs, AT&T has stated that the additional costs for building the network will not cause a significant effect on the company. These ground-to-air broadband network wireless services should provide in-flight broadband up to an estimated 30 Mbps with better reliability than SATCOM over terrestrial routes. In addition, a ground-based Wi-Fi network for airlines can also improve communications between airline flight crews and ground staff through the transmission of real-time aircraft data and related analyses. The 4G broadband systems use a variety of radio frequencies, depending upon national and individual licensing terms.

Recommendations

The modern air traffic controlling system depends on a wide range of communication technologies to ensure safe, accurate, timely, and efficient operations of our global commercial aerospace systems. These capabilities are constantly improving the existing systems and technologies with newer communications platforms thus facilitating the operations of global airlines.
The recommendation needs to correct your problem, you don’t have a problem. The recommendation must have rationale or a reason for it. The recommendation must also have one advantage and one disadvantage. You cannot use either alternative action.
You have copied and pasted a vast amount of information without telling me who you borrowed this information from. That is plagiarism. Proper application of the APA will keep you from plagiarizing. See the APA, my examples, and/or Purdue University’s online writing laboratory.

References
Barreveld, D. (2015). Aircraft Crash Investigations. Lulu Press. Retrieved from https://books.google.ae/books?id=Gp55CgAAQBAJ&lpg=PA217&ots=5x3U-_Os7C&vq=%E2%80%A2%20Barreveld%2C%20D.%20(2015).%20Aircraft%20Crash%20Investigations.%20Lulu%20Press.&dq=%E2%80%A2%20Barreveld%2C%20D.%20(2015).%20Aircraft%20Crash%20Investigations.%20Lulu%20Press.&hl=ar&pg=PA217#v=snippet&q=%E2%80%A2%20Barreveld%2C%20D.%20(2015).%20Aircraft%20Crash%20Investigations.%20Lulu%20Press.&f=false
Colucci, F. (2003, February). Avionics Upgrade Underway for Special Ops Helicopters. National Defense, 87(591), 24. Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.138.7423&rep=rep1&type=pdf
Raza, A., Ulansky, V. (2015). Minimizing Total Lifecycle Expected Costs of Digital Avionics’ Maintenance. Procedia 38, pp. 118-123. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212827115008720
Some See Danger in Use of Computers in Airliners. (1996, October 13). St Louis Post-Dispatch (MO). Retrieved from Questia. https://www.questia.com/library/p435553/st-louis-post-dispatch-mo/i3057551/november-26-1996
Soundar, R. (2013). Avionics systems. Defense Science Journal, 63(2), 129-130. http://publications.drdo.gov.in/ojs/index.php/dsj/article/view/4269/4461
Soshkin, M. (2016). The US aerospace industry: A manufacturing powerhouse. Business Economics, 51(3), 166. Retrieved from http://www.aia-aerospace.org/wpcontent/uploads/2016/12/AIA_StateOfIndusrtyReport_2016_V8.pdf You do not have an in-text citation for this entry.

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