لخّصلي

خدمة تلخيص النصوص العربية أونلاين،قم بتلخيص نصوصك بضغطة واحدة من خلال هذه الخدمة

نتيجة التلخيص (50%)

As is the case with many languages, re-
search into code-switching in Modern Irish
has, until recently, mainly been focused
on the spoken language. Online user-
generated content (UGC) is less restric-
tive than traditional written text, allowing
for code-switching, and as such, provides
a new platform for text-based research in
this field of study. This paper reports on
the annotation of (English) code-switching
in a corpus of 1496 Irish tweets and
provides a computational analysis of the
nature of code-switching amongst Irish-
speaking Twitter users, with a view to
providing a basis for future linguistic and
socio-linguistic studies.
1 Introduction
User-generated content (UGC) provides an insight
into the use of language in an informal setting in
a way that previously was not possible. That is to
say that in the pre-internet era (where most pub-
lished content was curated and edited), text that
was available for analysis was not necessarily re-
flective of everyday language use. User-generated
content, on the other hand, provides a clearer snap-
shot of a living language in natural, everyday use.
Analysis of minority language UGC in partic-
ular provides much insight into the evolution of
these languages in the digital age. In some bilin-
gual environments, the overwhelming dominance
of a majority language can sometimes restrict and
discourage the natural use of a minority language.

c 2019 The authors. This article is licensed under a Creative
Commons 4.0 licence, no derivative works, attribution, CC-
BY-ND.
Online environments, on the other hand, can offer
a kind of ‘safe space’ in which these languages can
co-exist and the minority language can thrive. Ad-
ditionally, various interesting linguistic phenom-
ena occur online that may be frowned upon in more
formal settings. The present paper aims to investi-
gate one such phenomenon among Irish-speaking
users of the micro-blogging platform Twitter.
Code-switching occurs whenever a speaker
switches between two (or more) languages in
a multilingual environment. Negative attitudes
towards code-switching have been documented
widely in this field – in particular earlier beliefs
that code-switching indicated a communicative de-
ficiency or lack of mastery of either language. In
fact, the phenomenon is now understood to be in-
dicative of bilingual proficiency (Grosjean, 2010).
Solorio and Liu (2008) note that “when the
country has more than one official language, we
can find instances of code-switching”. Given that
Irish is the first official language of the Republic
of Ireland, with English as the second,1
and given
the well-known existence of code-switching in the
spoken Irish of the Gaeltacht regions (Hickey,
2009), it is unsurprising that Lynn et al. (2015)
and Caulfield (2013, p. 208ff) report that code-
switching is a common feature in Irish UGC. Our
earlier work (Lynn et al., 2015), however, focused
only on a part-of-speech (POS) tagging analysis
of an Irish Twitter data set, without further ex-
ploration of the code-switching phenomenon that
was observed. In fact, the English (code-switched)
segments of tweets were given a general tag that
1Note that English is the more dominant language, with only
17.4% of the population reporting use of Irish outside the
education system http://www.cso.ie/en/media/
csoie/releasespublications/documents/
population/2017/7._The_Irish_language.
pdf
Proceedings of the Celtic Language Technology Workshop 2019 Dublin, 19–23 Aug


النص الأصلي

As is the case with many languages, re-
search into code-switching in Modern Irish
has, until recently, mainly been focused
on the spoken language. Online user-
generated content (UGC) is less restric-
tive than traditional written text, allowing
for code-switching, and as such, provides
a new platform for text-based research in
this field of study. This paper reports on
the annotation of (English) code-switching
in a corpus of 1496 Irish tweets and
provides a computational analysis of the
nature of code-switching amongst Irish-
speaking Twitter users, with a view to
providing a basis for future linguistic and
socio-linguistic studies.
1 Introduction
User-generated content (UGC) provides an insight
into the use of language in an informal setting in
a way that previously was not possible. That is to
say that in the pre-internet era (where most pub-
lished content was curated and edited), text that
was available for analysis was not necessarily re-
flective of everyday language use. User-generated
content, on the other hand, provides a clearer snap-
shot of a living language in natural, everyday use.
Analysis of minority language UGC in partic-
ular provides much insight into the evolution of
these languages in the digital age. In some bilin-
gual environments, the overwhelming dominance
of a majority language can sometimes restrict and
discourage the natural use of a minority language.

c 2019 The authors. This article is licensed under a Creative
Commons 4.0 licence, no derivative works, attribution, CC-
BY-ND.
Online environments, on the other hand, can offer
a kind of ‘safe space’ in which these languages can
co-exist and the minority language can thrive. Ad-
ditionally, various interesting linguistic phenom-
ena occur online that may be frowned upon in more
formal settings. The present paper aims to investi-
gate one such phenomenon among Irish-speaking
users of the micro-blogging platform Twitter.
Code-switching occurs whenever a speaker
switches between two (or more) languages in
a multilingual environment. Negative attitudes
towards code-switching have been documented
widely in this field – in particular earlier beliefs
that code-switching indicated a communicative de-
ficiency or lack of mastery of either language. In
fact, the phenomenon is now understood to be in-
dicative of bilingual proficiency (Grosjean, 2010).
Solorio and Liu (2008) note that “when the
country has more than one official language, we
can find instances of code-switching”. Given that
Irish is the first official language of the Republic
of Ireland, with English as the second,1
and given
the well-known existence of code-switching in the
spoken Irish of the Gaeltacht regions (Hickey,
2009), it is unsurprising that Lynn et al. (2015)
and Caulfield (2013, p. 208ff) report that code-
switching is a common feature in Irish UGC. Our
earlier work (Lynn et al., 2015), however, focused
only on a part-of-speech (POS) tagging analysis
of an Irish Twitter data set, without further ex-
ploration of the code-switching phenomenon that
was observed. In fact, the English (code-switched)
segments of tweets were given a general tag that
1Note that English is the more dominant language, with only
17.4% of the population reporting use of Irish outside the
education system http://www.cso.ie/en/media/
csoie/releasespublications/documents/
population/2017/7._The_Irish_language.
pdf
Proceedings of the Celtic Language Technology Workshop 2019 Dublin, 19–23 Aug

تلخيص النصوص العربية والإنجليزية أونلاين

تلخيص النصوص آلياً

تلخيص النصوص العربية والإنجليزية اليا باستخدام الخوارزميات الإحصائية وترتيب وأهمية الجمل في النص

تحميل التلخيص

يمكنك تحميل ناتج التلخيص بأكثر من صيغة متوفرة مثل PDF أو ملفات Word أو حتي نصوص عادية

رابط دائم

يمكنك مشاركة رابط التلخيص بسهولة حيث يحتفظ الموقع بالتلخيص لإمكانية الإطلاع عليه في أي وقت ومن أي جهاز ماعدا الملخصات الخاصة

مميزات أخري

نعمل علي العديد من الإضافات والمميزات لتسهيل عملية التلخيص وتحسينها


آخر التلخيصات

The enamel orga...

The enamel organ after development gives rise to enamel structure, while the dental papilla gives ri...

تعد التربية الم...

تعد التربية المدرسية من ركائز نهضة المجتمعات والامم.ومن اجل انجاح مسيرتها تنظم وفق خطة عمل نابعة من ...

الإبداع سمة من ...

الإبداع سمة من سمات الخالق أعطى البشرية جزءا منه في كثير من المجالات حتى اعتمدت الحياة على إبداع الم...

دافع الكفاءة و...

دافع الكفاءة وفقًا لأبحاث علم النفس التربوي ، يوصي Urdan & Turner (2005) ببعض الممارسات لتعزيز دافع...

يمتد الهواء الم...

يمتد الهواء المحيط بسطح الارض لعده الكيلومترات حيث تقل كثافته بالارتفاع وينقسم الغلاف الجوي الي 3 طب...

The last 200 ye...

The last 200 years of the volcanological record (figure 1), with humans distributed over most of the...

العوامل المادية...

العوامل المادية : و تشتمل علي توافر المكان الملائم الذى سوف يتم فيه عملية التدريس و إتاحة الساحات وا...

Some state stat...

Some state statutes specifically prohibit the issuance of stock dividends on treasury stock In those...

يمدنا التفكير ا...

يمدنا التفكير العلمي بمعارف جديدة لمواجهة الظواهر المعقدة التي تزداد تعقدا يوما بعد يوم في حياتنا ال...

اولا:مفهوم العل...

اولا:مفهوم العلاقات الدولية يقصد بالعلاقات الدولية ونشأتها ظاهرة علمية للتنظيم الدولي حيث تقوم بين ه...

Structural ling...

Structural linguistics in Europe is generally said to have begun in 1916 with the posthumous publica...

The goal of dev...

The goal of development is to expand people's capabilities to lead the lives of their choice. Income...