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project managers are paying serious,Nowadays with the advent of global and highly competitive markets
This vision has brought success and the.attention to providing valuable products to customers with the lowest fees
.in order to maintain their authority in the field,acturers to provide quality goodscompetition has led the manuf
Since consumers are also always looking for quality and affordable goods and services and products are provided in
continuous improvement and,uality of services and productsin addition to improving the q,hot competition fields



and is,how to use the methods to balance between the cost and the applications of a product play a fundamental role
].1[one of the most important factors of economic development
Therefore producers of goods and services trying to,The value of a product is different from different perspectives
ways to make additional costs forThey are following.obtain customer approval in return for price are presented



the goal is to create,Overall.cost methods rather than to have previous methods-removal and replacement of low
].1. [the best value through attention to cost and performance
increase performance,the purpose of applying value engineering is to implement the projects,d aboveas was note
combining the,In a closely related approach.and reduce costs in all phases of research and operational projects
:o increase productivity can be noted aslifetime value of engineering projects t
].2. [Performance ratio of output to input is defined in the project
to improve the performance outputs,ring isSo we can clearly understand that the purpose of applying value enginee



project,by having a conceptual approach to value engineering studies along with project management,and Inputs
.and value management,value analysis,analysis
* Hamid Tohidi. Tel.: +983079694.
E-mail address: [email protected] Computer Science 3 (2011) 917–924
www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia
1877-0509 c⃝ 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
doi:10.1016/j.procs.2010.12.150
c⃝ 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.
Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of the Guest Editor.
Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.
Hamid Tohidi
Hamid Tohidi/ Procedia Computer Science 00 (2010) 000–000
Performance index value is simply the price.ncreased productivity means increased performance worth indexI



productivity in the,so when increasing the value of index performance,performance ratio of the cost function
.]3[increasesprocess of producing the final product
management capabilities with,after nearly half a century since the design of value engineering projects,Today
and gainedn projectsperformance indicators i,operational growth and expansion has been associated with frequency
maximum efficiency in project implementation and made the best and most value for their products and the methods
used were value engineering [1].
ineering process in a range of project managements has faced restrictions such as the correctUsing value eng
the extent and,but the direction of the project,application of standards and rules governing the organization
tages of resources and additional costs to the project and to usecomplexity is greatly enhanced to deal with shor
modern methods and practices by management to use resources that are available and the optimum utilization of
l the desiredfile to run a plan to fuldistribution of authority and responsibility to be ab,teamwork,human resources



Project management has.a value engineering effort is organized in the framework of the project,In fact.manner
reventing theconsistently sought to use less time spent to value engineering in the final product utilization while p
.undue increase of the costs or the quality of work
Value engineering is in fact an organized effort aimed at studying and analyzing all activities of a plan since the
of the initial thinking to the design and implementation stages with full implementation plan to realize theformation
,The project cost categories not only includes the design but also the ownership costs].4[lowest cost and time



Application of.and consumption costs throughout the useful life of the projectmaintenance,including operation
value engineering in the project implementation has become according to the complexity of things, especially in big
,ate or modify anything that causes unnecessary costsThe aim of this method is to elimin.implementation projects
,Value engineering is continuously increasing the development of technology.without damage to essential functions
.of unnecessary executive costseliminating the portion of costs that do not play a role in promoting quality in terms
attitudes and habits that have been,mainly from past experiences,In traditional methods of cost reduction
,identification of problem areas,information,Conversely value engineering.creativity is not observed,repeating
proposed and developed methods and initiatives, develop new ideas and perspectives that integrate the all-round, is
to be recommended.
2. Value Engineering position in different nations
Considering the history and background and looking at the history of this field it can be clearly recognized that the
European countries,countries like United States of Americause of the field and engagement in various projects in
saving project-and also countries like Japan and India which have a lot of experience in this field are caused by cost
suggested1973was introduced inwhich"Value Engineering Society"The fourteenth meeting of.implementations
dollars savings in.534value engineering projects obtained about,that for every one dollar invested in management
nting thesePrese.1973billion dollars at the end of.81These figures show the savings rate of.administrative costs
statistics led to the use of value engineering in different industries and governments in America and Canada as the
India and even,countries such as Japan,In addition to the Americas.first states in the world using value engineering
percent of their71about,Japanese companies698Among.abia also have special attention in this fieldSaudi Ar
].4[value was in engineering products and benefit services
and various projects and the amount of,f utilizing value on the one handThe following table shows the rate o
.savings made in various projects in the United States of America on the other
Table 1. Rate of utilizing value
field The considerable
1 Road Rate of return on investment to 113 dollars per dollar cost in investment and an average of 845 million dollars in 1999
2 Health 24 percent cost reduction in projects related to health in a period of six years in New York
3 Construction Savings equivalent to one billion dollars in 2000 in projects of building highways in the United States
4 Industry Reducing costs in the range between 5% to 100% in different parts
5 Environment In environmental projects due to high costs for using a lot of potential methodologies
6 Government
services
Average Return on investment rate of 20 dollars per dollar invested918 H. Tohidi / Procedia Computer Science 3 (2011) 917–924
Hamid Tohidi/ Procedia Computer Science 00 (2010) 000–000
Table 2: Rate of utilizing value
Row Percent usage field
1 79.9 Electronics
2 91.3 Transport (road and traffic)
3 90 Production Equipment
4 84.5 Machine Manufacturing Co. and auto manufacturing
5 50 Chemical industries
6 39 Construction Industry
7 37.5 Food industry
Looking at the statistics above it can be clearly recognized that the present world is increasingly becoming more
complex and with implementation of various projects and creating broader common denominators, combined
with the value engineering project management.
engineering techniquesalueV.1.2
along with the increasing use of,and flexibility in its business plan,Value Engineering Task Force due to relying on
and making them closer"needs"and"time","cost"This tool is trying.project management leads to improve results
].1[to an optimum level
Figure 1: Philosophy of value in value engineering methodology
Demand
Value
Technique1- Mental movement or Brainstorming
In this technique all the participants conduct in an environment that is strictly barriers- empty. Thus creative ideas
are expressed. Rules for this technique are expressed by Dr. Osborne: -Criticism is forbidden, the opposing views
should be avoided for a while. -Welcome the free rotation the more ideas out of mind and being more daring, the
better. -Quantity is desired. Any idea that is likely to emerge more ideas is effective. - Compound and modify ideas:
each team member in addition to its role in creating their own ideas should suggest how ideas of others help or
combine two or more ideas. [1]
2.2. Technique2-Delphitechniq
this technique is used for decision making and reaching consensus. Delphi technique consists of five stages: Each
group member independently decides about the subject he writes. - Written comments to be sent to a central station
and the central station collect comments and are reproduced. - For each member, all the views will be sent. - Each
member comments about others’ opinion and perhaps a new awareness of others opinion, and the result will be
written to the central station. Stages before it is unanimity achieved Flow chart that represents how the process is
different in the Delphi technique is as follows:
2.3. Technique 3 - Collapsed sociological analysis technique
this technique is technically a desired shape and structure of various dimensions for the study and analysis of
.Initially existing surfaces and different aspects of the phenomenon seem to develop.development
For the various aspects of a topic it can be formed and components compared with the main dimensions and theirH. Tohidi / Procedia Computer Science 3 (2011) 917–924 919
Hamid Tohidi/ Procedia Computer Science 00 (2010) 000–000
components on concentric circles and twisting the circular posts of different dimensions and compared with
]1. [components
Figure 2 - Algorithm Method Delphi technique
ueTechniqNominal Group-4Technique.4.2
is used because people are not allowed to have verbal contact with each other and find the real"nominal"The word
rs face each other on a table and problemsGroup membe-:meanings of the word group and it includes five stages
or issues solved together and written decision to each member is given and they should remain silent and
Each member to turn an idea to the group when there is the-.without consulting each otherindependent
Opinions recorded in the group-.the debate will not begin,and not until all ideas are proposed,ortunityopp
Each member independently and secretly grades-.discussion are to be put in concepts to evaluate in the next step
]1. [g would be the highest total score givenGroup decision makin-.beliefs
per technique or a controversial ideas and questionsa comparative Scam-5echniqueT.5.2
of initial verbs and ideas that is used in detection and by application and it is verymper is a word composedSca
Rather than the person to?What can be replaced:Substitute:This tool is in short.ationseffective in practical situ
What:Combine.Etc?What elsewhere?processWhat other?What other material?Rather than what things?whom
What else is?adapt:Adapt?Combine the concepts?e ideasDo we combine thes?Mix of units?can be combined
?More time?imizeMax:Magnify?s it offer the same news lastDoe?What other ideas do you suggest?like this
the,to change:Modify?Duplicate?To create?Multiply?More value?Thicker?Longer?Stronger?Repeated more
Put to other?body and other changes,shape,fragrance,sound,movement,colour,Significant change?new rotation
Access?whereApplications else?Other applications?New ways for practical use?other applicationsto have:uses
?Smaller,)low(What differentiation?What do we remove?Shrink?Remove:Eliminate?by other people
to change the:Rearrange?Treat small?Simplify?ryptedUnenc?Lighter?Shorter?To lower?Condensation
]1[?Cause and effect move to?Other sequences?Other maps?Other patterns?Components to move?composition
Finally the idea of
creation
Start
Problem presented to the group
Each member’s ideas are recorded
Comments sent to the central station
Ideas collected and amplified and provided other members
Ideas and actions of others
New?
Yes
No920 H. Tohidi / Procedia Computer Science 3 (2011) 917–924
Hamid Tohidi/ Procedia Computer Science 00 (2010) 000–000
Figure 3 - Component technique Scamper
2.6. Technique 6 - FAST Technique
FAST technique is a systematic guide map for the task. This diagram of a method for organized search and
collection of processes provides a method and step functions and tools needed to achieve. FAST charts for each set
of tasks that are related to each other and work is in fact very broad range of its application are briefly introduced
and presented in graphics and drawing functions in the FAST diagram. [1] It includes the FAST technique that could
yield a larger system to consider.
model nature-7Technique..72
this technique,In fact.Selection of a powerful form of flows of items on laws of nature with choice of images
]1. [cal casespatterns is derived from nature and analysis generalized to practi
Quality Home-8Technique..82
The second floor of the.th quality demands and customer needsMatrix is set in the western part of the house wi
the dependency matrix,The main floor of the house shows.house is designed into needs quality characteristics
ess the relationship betweenthe matrix will expr,In the gable room.design characteristics and customer needs
Lower class target values.The matrix analysis is useful and specification design makes style.designs characteristics
s areshows designing a product or service compared with what competitor,East.for design parameters are included
].1. [doing
DO IT technique-9Technique..92
Chosen because these four words solve this.the name of this technique has been formed from four English words
soWe have tried?The question is why there is this problem.first it is necessary to precisely define topic,problem
with focus on the topic and understanding it can be more,In this stage.hard to divide it into smaller problems
.Among the ideas is the best choice.Question can be seen from different angles.accurate definition of its receipt
Weaknesses of each idea are found in this article is how to think them.the analysis is done,Based on ideas gathered
].1. [The idea should become practical solution after evaluating and selecting the best ideas.into strength
n of creative techniquesthe illusio-10Technique..102
The assumption is to.Five human sense of reality are understood.is not reality,Very often what we think is reality
Things that your eye sees so that it?Is it really so.human environmentgive the report and precise sense of the
.Sort of mind work.Eye sees something else that is in mind.is causing this error or illusion,would interpret
but it is a summary of the codes through which,images that your mind sees is not copied the direct object,Therefore
All individuals in all cases have the same understanding of a subject and the eye.neural network is to reach the brain
Sometimes these.alityand brain perception of communication not always leads to a coherent understanding of re
,In fact.it is effectively visible,contrary to previous experience in the subject,On the other hand.two are together
wenot what,expectations and previous experiences make us what we would like to see,the desires,most of the time
]1. [really see out there
mandatory communication techniques-11Technique..112
The technique of placing two different objects together and try to communicate between them will help to
featuresg newfluidization mind and the creative direction cause theories and ultimately cause new products or addin
it pays to consider trying to have a,Now with a concise method and its main function]1. [to old products
In order to be able to influence the value.permanent place to review the value engineering and manage IT projects
we must first component and to the expression of step by step evolution of project,t managementengineering projec
Complex project management processes can be organized in five process.introduce a short process,implementation
:which respectively are,groups
Substitute Combine MagnifyAdapt Modify
RearrangeEliminatePut to other usesH. Tohidi / Procedia Computer Science 3 (2011) 917–924 921
Hamid Tohidi/ Procedia Computer Science 00 (2010) 000–000
.This process gives the project recognition and a license is issued to it):Initiating Processes(• Early processes
as well as best practices among other methods,to define and refine goals):sPlanning Processe(• Planning Process
.committed to reaching their deals,of operation in order to achieve desired project goals
.to coordinate people and other resources for program data:)Executive Processes(• Process Executive
the project goals through regular monitoring and evaluation of the):Controlling Processes(• Process Control
to implement corrective,planRegular monitoring processes with the aim to specify deviations from the.processes
.actions if necessary
and give it to recognize the end of a,implemented,accept the project or phase):Closing Processes(• Process closing
].5[regular point and provides specific guidance
This section will try to review the structure of project management processes, "Following my tank" and place value
in engineering project management, especially IT projects.
:The starting phase of Project.1.112
]1. [includes defining and organizing and preparing the project planThis phase
In this phase the required reviews are performed. Reviews on how project is very effective. At this stage it should be
necessary to consider about the market, review technical and financial to be done based on the needs and demands
of the project and combining it with restrictions there of the best decisions and best planning to be done.
Market review: In this section, and type of customer to review the market. The main criterion is of people who are
stakeholders in the project. Including those stakeholders in a project where information technology can be like:
Management, Project Manager, Project sponsor, Project team, Customers, end users, Society.
But the most famous is the community goal. IT projects should be carefully focused on the target community and
collecting examples of the target sectors of society affected by the project, the needs and demands of their level, the
aim of culture, society, education level, community level access to target, substrates required for benefiting from the
project results and ... Identify, as necessary considerations should be done in connection with the performance
improvement [6]. The next issue of the review is that special attention should be made to the kind of market. We
should review information about the list of required tools and equipment for project implementation, companies and
organizations that are providing services, how to provide or receive services and goods, both domestic and imported
equipment, or how products and services to the community goal are. Also reviews of other market must be noted in
the review, market review of strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and chances, the risk of existing problems and
eventually providing services to the community. [1] In this section, Gary gives two special topics of special effects
in his update. Organizational level, personal interests, supporters of penetration in different stages of project work
and the amount of support that high-ranking person’s support of the project, must be carefully examined. About
projects, particularly project management and project sponsors of projects that are being implemented, each
followed by absorption of a society have a common goal [6].
Table 4: Member and Reason suggestion
Members Reasons suggested
leader Nobility to the issues in meetings, decision support
One or more selected customer target
community
Features, applications, customer price point of view, the number depending on the
importance of customer
Shopping Section 1) List of tools, equipment
2) check companies producing and selling agents
Commercial sector sales and services Study of obtainable in the market share
Value Engineering Training and implementation techniques have been proposed at this stage
Proposed combination of value engineering team review of market and target
In this section, the proposed technique is morphological and sociological analysis. Review of product structure and
dimensions in reviews, processing capacity, application, number of transactions, security coefficients, operation
volume, space required for creation and communication between server and client, size, weight, dimensions desired
for the product , potential customers and how to position products and the results of projects such as personality,
mood, income, amount of target age, gender, education level and education, the other dimensions of market, product
reviews and results of the project is considered. The relationship between dimensions and different status in terms of
customers shapes the overall structure and dimensions in the analysis to be done.
can according to theall participants will share and they,Other techniques at this stage Delphi technique is a search
after several rounds of reviews about the,In this way.opinions and experience agree or express their disagreement
.requirements the end result will be achieved922 H. Tohidi / Procedia Computer Science 3 (2011) 917–924
Hamid Tohidi/ Procedia Computer Science 00 (2010) 000–000
ed fromlModel.two other techniques at this stage can be proposed,In addition to the techniques presented above
which provide technical suggestions and new ideas can create new products or make new parts to the,nature
.sults of the project in the success of the projectpreliminary re
the technique requires that the communication link,Another technique that can provide better results is the Bulls
creating new combination between two or more different technologies and,nd different problemswith a new a
.better conditions that the community aims to provide,provides newer ideas and a more efficient product
in the technical review.]1[ns and operations are examinedofuncti,tools,he technical meansT:Technical reviews
software requirements and technical,technical product standards for its product,results and products of a project
,lop software on the networkhow to deve,characteristics of software type of network communication required
how users access,review technical specifications and operating system compatibility for them to set up programs
inreview methodology and a variety of selection processes,user level access to the product technically,technology
technical and manufacturing companies or services provided by companies and sales,different projects
.review of technical manpower and Chart,equipment and accessories needed,representatives
Table 3: Members and Reason suggested
members Reasons suggested
leader Nobility to the issues in meetings, decision support
Technical department 1) of product standards and technical specifications required
2) Assessment of equipment needed
Production and technical
department
Evaluation of selected methods and methodologies in the production process
shopping 1) of the company producing
2) review vendors and equipment suppliers
3) review to ensure participants and guarantees the executive sales representative
Administrative Organization
Section
(Involved with the project)
1) of professionals and contractors needed
2) estimated workforce
3) provide organizational chart
Value Engineering A training and implementation techniques have been proposed at this stage
At this stage members do not have.t can be suggested at this stage is the nominal group techniqueTechnique tha
when comments are written it makes it,On the other hand.contact with each other orally and with decisiveness
,sons based on their approval or opposition to express the issues raisedto concentrate for rea,possible for audiences
n examining the financial aspects of projectsI:Financial review.and ultimately the opportunity for group decision
alysis in the financial review to determine theand cost and revenue an,investment,such as profitability,finance
the amount of fixed,financed resources,total investment plan,working capital,annual operating expenses
y thefacilities is examined and determining the amount raised and brought b,lvainvestment and currency ri
.]1[sed on the output stage is donedue to the use of value engineering calculation ba,At this stage.Shareholders
Planning Phase..2.112 ,On issues such as project planning phase]1. [roject to be developed and drawna comprehensive p,At this stage
and due to,duration of activity if accepted,sequencing activities,defining project activities,defining project scope
FAST.more optimal results for phase planning projectthe systematic nature of the FAST technique could have connections that need to perform transposition when,cause and effect connections,diagram of a system can function
erations in the project and areother activities are in line with performance and are based on mechanisms and other op
].1. [to be depicted and expressed
The Executive Phase..3.112
Administrative phase of resources needed by the committee research project is anticipated to begin and the project is
.nrequired to be collected and taken according to pla through allocation of resources and manpower in the steps,due to the implementation of activities,At this stage
determined program is done and presented in a special technique that is-as a preduties and activities,taken before
.not recommended at this stage
Phase Control..4.112
Control and review various issues in different phases of the same issues that must be beginning the project as one of
So to control various processes in the project it is.projects taken up and runthe key parameters in the process of .recommended to use the Delphi techniqueH. Tohidi / Procedia Computer Science 3 (2011) 917–924 923
Hamid Tohidi/ Procedia Computer Science 00 (2010) 000–000
phaseClosing..5.112
project members,project documentation,at this stage to review the final product production and project evaluation
including the proposed solutions can be combined,In this phase.uredeclare victory or fail,to estimate performance
Using these two techniques can be prominent features in the project as bright spots.and the Delphi technique cited
,e concise and accurate troubleshooting projectsso that using it can b,identified and examined the reasons for failure
.or repeat them in future projects,and this causes possible correct errors in its projects
3.Conclusion
The issues are realized to be clearly a high risk in IT projects at national and institutional levels. IT project managers
with all the different risks in different IT projects, are trying to minimize errors, to achieve maximum efficiency and
through this reduce administrative costs and increase profits and interest productivity in organizations ,this way it
can increase the quality of organizational processes and to enhance desirable results, but due to the very rapid
development of new technologies today it has met on the one hand, and the existence of the company differences
with different products in terms of cost, functionality, performance and support ... On the other hand has caused any
project done in this area associated with complications, and project management team with decision making
problems such as technology selection, selection means, how to do electronic transactions and ... Therefore, value
engineering to try this based on the proposed techniques, always analyze any possible problems with a logical and
efficient use of collective wisdom and expertise of the best decisions to be taken this way to further reduce potential
risk.
References
1. Abdolshah Mohammad, torabi mehdi, Jahan ali, (2000) “studying in the categories of project management value engineering "
2. Jenab Kamran, (2005) "Application of value engineering in the development of productivity paced"
3. Nemati Ramazan, raeesi gholam ali, (2006) "Uncertainty in Value Engineering."
4. "The concept, theory and principles of value engineering, “www.hamkelasy.com/branch/value_engineering.doc"
5. Ahmadpur Mojtaba, Agharezaei Maysam, "Range of project management knowledge", Naghoos Publishing. Second Edition 2005.
6. Phillips Josef, "IT Project Management: On Track Form Start to Finish “, ISBN: 978-964-8996-30-20924 H. Tohidi / Procedia Computer Science 3 (2011) 917–92


Original text

project managers are paying serious,Nowadays with the advent of global and highly competitive markets
This vision has brought success and the.attention to providing valuable products to customers with the lowest fees
.in order to maintain their authority in the field,acturers to provide quality goodscompetition has led the manuf
Since consumers are also always looking for quality and affordable goods and services and products are provided in
continuous improvement and,uality of services and productsin addition to improving the q,hot competition fields


and is,how to use the methods to balance between the cost and the applications of a product play a fundamental role
].1[one of the most important factors of economic development
Therefore producers of goods and services trying to,The value of a product is different from different perspectives
ways to make additional costs forThey are following.obtain customer approval in return for price are presented


the goal is to create,Overall.cost methods rather than to have previous methods-removal and replacement of low
].1. [the best value through attention to cost and performance
increase performance,the purpose of applying value engineering is to implement the projects,d aboveas was note
combining the,In a closely related approach.and reduce costs in all phases of research and operational projects
:o increase productivity can be noted aslifetime value of engineering projects t
].2. [Performance ratio of output to input is defined in the project
to improve the performance outputs,ring isSo we can clearly understand that the purpose of applying value enginee


project,by having a conceptual approach to value engineering studies along with project management,and Inputs
.and value management,value analysis,analysis



  • Hamid Tohidi. Tel.: +983079694.
    E-mail address: [email protected] Computer Science 3 (2011) 917–924
    www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia
    1877-0509 c⃝ 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    doi:10.1016/j.procs.2010.12.150
    c⃝ 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.
    Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of the Guest Editor.
    Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.
    Hamid Tohidi
    Hamid Tohidi/ Procedia Computer Science 00 (2010) 000–000
    Performance index value is simply the price.ncreased productivity means increased performance worth indexI


productivity in the,so when increasing the value of index performance,performance ratio of the cost function
.]3[increasesprocess of producing the final product
management capabilities with,after nearly half a century since the design of value engineering projects,Today
and gainedn projectsperformance indicators i,operational growth and expansion has been associated with frequency
maximum efficiency in project implementation and made the best and most value for their products and the methods
used were value engineering [1].
ineering process in a range of project managements has faced restrictions such as the correctUsing value eng
the extent and,but the direction of the project,application of standards and rules governing the organization
tages of resources and additional costs to the project and to usecomplexity is greatly enhanced to deal with shor
modern methods and practices by management to use resources that are available and the optimum utilization of
l the desiredfile to run a plan to fuldistribution of authority and responsibility to be ab,teamwork,human resources


Project management has.a value engineering effort is organized in the framework of the project,In fact.manner
reventing theconsistently sought to use less time spent to value engineering in the final product utilization while p
.undue increase of the costs or the quality of work
Value engineering is in fact an organized effort aimed at studying and analyzing all activities of a plan since the
of the initial thinking to the design and implementation stages with full implementation plan to realize theformation
,The project cost categories not only includes the design but also the ownership costs].4[lowest cost and time


Application of.and consumption costs throughout the useful life of the projectmaintenance,including operation
value engineering in the project implementation has become according to the complexity of things, especially in big
,ate or modify anything that causes unnecessary costsThe aim of this method is to elimin.implementation projects
,Value engineering is continuously increasing the development of technology.without damage to essential functions
.of unnecessary executive costseliminating the portion of costs that do not play a role in promoting quality in terms
attitudes and habits that have been,mainly from past experiences,In traditional methods of cost reduction
,identification of problem areas,information,Conversely value engineering.creativity is not observed,repeating
proposed and developed methods and initiatives, develop new ideas and perspectives that integrate the all-round, is
to be recommended.
2. Value Engineering position in different nations
Considering the history and background and looking at the history of this field it can be clearly recognized that the
European countries,countries like United States of Americause of the field and engagement in various projects in
saving project-and also countries like Japan and India which have a lot of experience in this field are caused by cost
suggested1973was introduced inwhich"Value Engineering Society"The fourteenth meeting of.implementations
dollars savings in.534value engineering projects obtained about,that for every one dollar invested in management
nting thesePrese.1973billion dollars at the end of.81These figures show the savings rate of.administrative costs
statistics led to the use of value engineering in different industries and governments in America and Canada as the
India and even,countries such as Japan,In addition to the Americas.first states in the world using value engineering
percent of their71about,Japanese companies698Among.abia also have special attention in this fieldSaudi Ar
].4[value was in engineering products and benefit services
and various projects and the amount of,f utilizing value on the one handThe following table shows the rate o
.savings made in various projects in the United States of America on the other
Table 1. Rate of utilizing value
field The considerable
1 Road Rate of return on investment to 113 dollars per dollar cost in investment and an average of 845 million dollars in 1999
2 Health 24 percent cost reduction in projects related to health in a period of six years in New York
3 Construction Savings equivalent to one billion dollars in 2000 in projects of building highways in the United States
4 Industry Reducing costs in the range between 5% to 100% in different parts
5 Environment In environmental projects due to high costs for using a lot of potential methodologies
6 Government
services
Average Return on investment rate of 20 dollars per dollar invested918 H. Tohidi / Procedia Computer Science 3 (2011) 917–924
Hamid Tohidi/ Procedia Computer Science 00 (2010) 000–000
Table 2: Rate of utilizing value
Row Percent usage field
1 79.9 Electronics
2 91.3 Transport (road and traffic)
3 90 Production Equipment
4 84.5 Machine Manufacturing Co. and auto manufacturing
5 50 Chemical industries
6 39 Construction Industry
7 37.5 Food industry
Looking at the statistics above it can be clearly recognized that the present world is increasingly becoming more
complex and with implementation of various projects and creating broader common denominators, combined
with the value engineering project management.
engineering techniquesalueV.1.2
along with the increasing use of,and flexibility in its business plan,Value Engineering Task Force due to relying on
and making them closer"needs"and"time","cost"This tool is trying.project management leads to improve results
].1[to an optimum level
Figure 1: Philosophy of value in value engineering methodology
Demand
Value
Technique1- Mental movement or Brainstorming
In this technique all the participants conduct in an environment that is strictly barriers- empty. Thus creative ideas
are expressed. Rules for this technique are expressed by Dr. Osborne: -Criticism is forbidden, the opposing views
should be avoided for a while. -Welcome the free rotation the more ideas out of mind and being more daring, the
better. -Quantity is desired. Any idea that is likely to emerge more ideas is effective. - Compound and modify ideas:
each team member in addition to its role in creating their own ideas should suggest how ideas of others help or
combine two or more ideas. [1]
2.2. Technique2-Delphitechniq
this technique is used for decision making and reaching consensus. Delphi technique consists of five stages: Each
group member independently decides about the subject he writes. - Written comments to be sent to a central station
and the central station collect comments and are reproduced. - For each member, all the views will be sent. - Each
member comments about others’ opinion and perhaps a new awareness of others opinion, and the result will be
written to the central station. Stages before it is unanimity achieved Flow chart that represents how the process is
different in the Delphi technique is as follows:
2.3. Technique 3 - Collapsed sociological analysis technique
this technique is technically a desired shape and structure of various dimensions for the study and analysis of
.Initially existing surfaces and different aspects of the phenomenon seem to develop.development
For the various aspects of a topic it can be formed and components compared with the main dimensions and theirH. Tohidi / Procedia Computer Science 3 (2011) 917–924 919
Hamid Tohidi/ Procedia Computer Science 00 (2010) 000–000
components on concentric circles and twisting the circular posts of different dimensions and compared with
]1. [components
Figure 2 - Algorithm Method Delphi technique
ueTechniqNominal Group-4Technique.4.2
is used because people are not allowed to have verbal contact with each other and find the real"nominal"The word
rs face each other on a table and problemsGroup membe-:meanings of the word group and it includes five stages
or issues solved together and written decision to each member is given and they should remain silent and
Each member to turn an idea to the group when there is the-.without consulting each otherindependent
Opinions recorded in the group-.the debate will not begin,and not until all ideas are proposed,ortunityopp
Each member independently and secretly grades-.discussion are to be put in concepts to evaluate in the next step
]1. [g would be the highest total score givenGroup decision makin-.beliefs
per technique or a controversial ideas and questionsa comparative Scam-5echniqueT.5.2
of initial verbs and ideas that is used in detection and by application and it is verymper is a word composedSca
Rather than the person to?What can be replaced:Substitute:This tool is in short.ationseffective in practical situ
What:Combine.Etc?What elsewhere?processWhat other?What other material?Rather than what things?whom
What else is?adapt:Adapt?Combine the concepts?e ideasDo we combine thes?Mix of units?can be combined
?More time?imizeMax:Magnify?s it offer the same news lastDoe?What other ideas do you suggest?like this
the,to change:Modify?Duplicate?To create?Multiply?More value?Thicker?Longer?Stronger?Repeated more
Put to other?body and other changes,shape,fragrance,sound,movement,colour,Significant change?new rotation
Access?whereApplications else?Other applications?New ways for practical use?other applicationsto have:uses
?Smaller,)low(What differentiation?What do we remove?Shrink?Remove:Eliminate?by other people
to change the:Rearrange?Treat small?Simplify?ryptedUnenc?Lighter?Shorter?To lower?Condensation
]1[?Cause and effect move to?Other sequences?Other maps?Other patterns?Components to move?composition
Finally the idea of
creation
Start
Problem presented to the group
Each member’s ideas are recorded
Comments sent to the central station
Ideas collected and amplified and provided other members
Ideas and actions of others
New?
Yes
No920 H. Tohidi / Procedia Computer Science 3 (2011) 917–924
Hamid Tohidi/ Procedia Computer Science 00 (2010) 000–000
Figure 3 - Component technique Scamper
2.6. Technique 6 - FAST Technique
FAST technique is a systematic guide map for the task. This diagram of a method for organized search and
collection of processes provides a method and step functions and tools needed to achieve. FAST charts for each set
of tasks that are related to each other and work is in fact very broad range of its application are briefly introduced
and presented in graphics and drawing functions in the FAST diagram. [1] It includes the FAST technique that could
yield a larger system to consider.
model nature-7Technique..72
this technique,In fact.Selection of a powerful form of flows of items on laws of nature with choice of images
]1. [cal casespatterns is derived from nature and analysis generalized to practi
Quality Home-8Technique..82
The second floor of the.th quality demands and customer needsMatrix is set in the western part of the house wi
the dependency matrix,The main floor of the house shows.house is designed into needs quality characteristics
ess the relationship betweenthe matrix will expr,In the gable room.design characteristics and customer needs
Lower class target values.The matrix analysis is useful and specification design makes style.designs characteristics
s areshows designing a product or service compared with what competitor,East.for design parameters are included
].1. [doing
DO IT technique-9Technique..92
Chosen because these four words solve this.the name of this technique has been formed from four English words
soWe have tried?The question is why there is this problem.first it is necessary to precisely define topic,problem
with focus on the topic and understanding it can be more,In this stage.hard to divide it into smaller problems
.Among the ideas is the best choice.Question can be seen from different angles.accurate definition of its receipt
Weaknesses of each idea are found in this article is how to think them.the analysis is done,Based on ideas gathered
].1. [The idea should become practical solution after evaluating and selecting the best ideas.into strength
n of creative techniquesthe illusio-10Technique..102
The assumption is to.Five human sense of reality are understood.is not reality,Very often what we think is reality
Things that your eye sees so that it?Is it really so.human environmentgive the report and precise sense of the
.Sort of mind work.Eye sees something else that is in mind.is causing this error or illusion,would interpret
but it is a summary of the codes through which,images that your mind sees is not copied the direct object,Therefore
All individuals in all cases have the same understanding of a subject and the eye.neural network is to reach the brain
Sometimes these.alityand brain perception of communication not always leads to a coherent understanding of re
,In fact.it is effectively visible,contrary to previous experience in the subject,On the other hand.two are together
wenot what,expectations and previous experiences make us what we would like to see,the desires,most of the time
]1. [really see out there
mandatory communication techniques-11Technique..112
The technique of placing two different objects together and try to communicate between them will help to
featuresg newfluidization mind and the creative direction cause theories and ultimately cause new products or addin
it pays to consider trying to have a,Now with a concise method and its main function]1. [to old products
In order to be able to influence the value.permanent place to review the value engineering and manage IT projects
we must first component and to the expression of step by step evolution of project,t managementengineering projec
Complex project management processes can be organized in five process.introduce a short process,implementation
:which respectively are,groups
Substitute Combine MagnifyAdapt Modify
RearrangeEliminatePut to other usesH. Tohidi / Procedia Computer Science 3 (2011) 917–924 921
Hamid Tohidi/ Procedia Computer Science 00 (2010) 000–000
.This process gives the project recognition and a license is issued to it):Initiating Processes(• Early processes
as well as best practices among other methods,to define and refine goals):sPlanning Processe(• Planning Process
.committed to reaching their deals,of operation in order to achieve desired project goals
.to coordinate people and other resources for program data:)Executive Processes(• Process Executive
the project goals through regular monitoring and evaluation of the):Controlling Processes(• Process Control
to implement corrective,planRegular monitoring processes with the aim to specify deviations from the.processes
.actions if necessary
and give it to recognize the end of a,implemented,accept the project or phase):Closing Processes(• Process closing
].5[regular point and provides specific guidance
This section will try to review the structure of project management processes, "Following my tank" and place value
in engineering project management, especially IT projects.
:The starting phase of Project.1.112
]1. [includes defining and organizing and preparing the project planThis phase
In this phase the required reviews are performed. Reviews on how project is very effective. At this stage it should be
necessary to consider about the market, review technical and financial to be done based on the needs and demands
of the project and combining it with restrictions there of the best decisions and best planning to be done.
Market review: In this section, and type of customer to review the market. The main criterion is of people who are
stakeholders in the project. Including those stakeholders in a project where information technology can be like:
Management, Project Manager, Project sponsor, Project team, Customers, end users, Society.
But the most famous is the community goal. IT projects should be carefully focused on the target community and
collecting examples of the target sectors of society affected by the project, the needs and demands of their level, the
aim of culture, society, education level, community level access to target, substrates required for benefiting from the
project results and ... Identify, as necessary considerations should be done in connection with the performance
improvement [6]. The next issue of the review is that special attention should be made to the kind of market. We
should review information about the list of required tools and equipment for project implementation, companies and
organizations that are providing services, how to provide or receive services and goods, both domestic and imported
equipment, or how products and services to the community goal are. Also reviews of other market must be noted in
the review, market review of strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and chances, the risk of existing problems and
eventually providing services to the community. [1] In this section, Gary gives two special topics of special effects
in his update. Organizational level, personal interests, supporters of penetration in different stages of project work
and the amount of support that high-ranking person’s support of the project, must be carefully examined. About
projects, particularly project management and project sponsors of projects that are being implemented, each
followed by absorption of a society have a common goal [6].
Table 4: Member and Reason suggestion
Members Reasons suggested
leader Nobility to the issues in meetings, decision support
One or more selected customer target
community
Features, applications, customer price point of view, the number depending on the
importance of customer
Shopping Section 1) List of tools, equipment
2) check companies producing and selling agents
Commercial sector sales and services Study of obtainable in the market share
Value Engineering Training and implementation techniques have been proposed at this stage
Proposed combination of value engineering team review of market and target
In this section, the proposed technique is morphological and sociological analysis. Review of product structure and
dimensions in reviews, processing capacity, application, number of transactions, security coefficients, operation
volume, space required for creation and communication between server and client, size, weight, dimensions desired
for the product , potential customers and how to position products and the results of projects such as personality,
mood, income, amount of target age, gender, education level and education, the other dimensions of market, product
reviews and results of the project is considered. The relationship between dimensions and different status in terms of
customers shapes the overall structure and dimensions in the analysis to be done.
can according to theall participants will share and they,Other techniques at this stage Delphi technique is a search
after several rounds of reviews about the,In this way.opinions and experience agree or express their disagreement
.requirements the end result will be achieved922 H. Tohidi / Procedia Computer Science 3 (2011) 917–924
Hamid Tohidi/ Procedia Computer Science 00 (2010) 000–000
ed fromlModel.two other techniques at this stage can be proposed,In addition to the techniques presented above
which provide technical suggestions and new ideas can create new products or make new parts to the,nature
.sults of the project in the success of the projectpreliminary re
the technique requires that the communication link,Another technique that can provide better results is the Bulls
creating new combination between two or more different technologies and,nd different problemswith a new a
.better conditions that the community aims to provide,provides newer ideas and a more efficient product
in the technical review.]1[ns and operations are examinedofuncti,tools,he technical meansT:Technical reviews
software requirements and technical,technical product standards for its product,results and products of a project
,lop software on the networkhow to deve,characteristics of software type of network communication required
how users access,review technical specifications and operating system compatibility for them to set up programs
inreview methodology and a variety of selection processes,user level access to the product technically,technology
technical and manufacturing companies or services provided by companies and sales,different projects
.review of technical manpower and Chart,equipment and accessories needed,representatives
Table 3: Members and Reason suggested
members Reasons suggested
leader Nobility to the issues in meetings, decision support
Technical department 1) of product standards and technical specifications required
2) Assessment of equipment needed
Production and technical
department
Evaluation of selected methods and methodologies in the production process
shopping 1) of the company producing
2) review vendors and equipment suppliers
3) review to ensure participants and guarantees the executive sales representative
Administrative Organization
Section
(Involved with the project)



  1. of professionals and contractors needed

  2. estimated workforce

  3. provide organizational chart
    Value Engineering A training and implementation techniques have been proposed at this stage
    At this stage members do not have.t can be suggested at this stage is the nominal group techniqueTechnique tha
    when comments are written it makes it,On the other hand.contact with each other orally and with decisiveness
    ,sons based on their approval or opposition to express the issues raisedto concentrate for rea,possible for audiences
    n examining the financial aspects of projectsI:Financial review.and ultimately the opportunity for group decision
    alysis in the financial review to determine theand cost and revenue an,investment,such as profitability,finance
    the amount of fixed,financed resources,total investment plan,working capital,annual operating expenses
    y thefacilities is examined and determining the amount raised and brought b,lvainvestment and currency ri
    .]1[sed on the output stage is donedue to the use of value engineering calculation ba,At this stage.Shareholders
    Planning Phase..2.112 ,On issues such as project planning phase]1. [roject to be developed and drawna comprehensive p,At this stage
    and due to,duration of activity if accepted,sequencing activities,defining project activities,defining project scope
    FAST.more optimal results for phase planning projectthe systematic nature of the FAST technique could have connections that need to perform transposition when,cause and effect connections,diagram of a system can function
    erations in the project and areother activities are in line with performance and are based on mechanisms and other op
    ].1. [to be depicted and expressed
    The Executive Phase..3.112
    Administrative phase of resources needed by the committee research project is anticipated to begin and the project is
    .nrequired to be collected and taken according to pla through allocation of resources and manpower in the steps,due to the implementation of activities,At this stage
    determined program is done and presented in a special technique that is-as a preduties and activities,taken before
    .not recommended at this stage
    Phase Control..4.112
    Control and review various issues in different phases of the same issues that must be beginning the project as one of
    So to control various processes in the project it is.projects taken up and runthe key parameters in the process of .recommended to use the Delphi techniqueH. Tohidi / Procedia Computer Science 3 (2011) 917–924 923
    Hamid Tohidi/ Procedia Computer Science 00 (2010) 000–000
    phaseClosing..5.112
    project members,project documentation,at this stage to review the final product production and project evaluation
    including the proposed solutions can be combined,In this phase.uredeclare victory or fail,to estimate performance
    Using these two techniques can be prominent features in the project as bright spots.and the Delphi technique cited
    ,e concise and accurate troubleshooting projectsso that using it can b,identified and examined the reasons for failure
    .or repeat them in future projects,and this causes possible correct errors in its projects
    3.Conclusion
    The issues are realized to be clearly a high risk in IT projects at national and institutional levels. IT project managers
    with all the different risks in different IT projects, are trying to minimize errors, to achieve maximum efficiency and
    through this reduce administrative costs and increase profits and interest productivity in organizations ,this way it
    can increase the quality of organizational processes and to enhance desirable results, but due to the very rapid
    development of new technologies today it has met on the one hand, and the existence of the company differences
    with different products in terms of cost, functionality, performance and support ... On the other hand has caused any
    project done in this area associated with complications, and project management team with decision making
    problems such as technology selection, selection means, how to do electronic transactions and ... Therefore, value
    engineering to try this based on the proposed techniques, always analyze any possible problems with a logical and
    efficient use of collective wisdom and expertise of the best decisions to be taken this way to further reduce potential
    risk.
    References



  1. Abdolshah Mohammad, torabi mehdi, Jahan ali, (2000) “studying in the categories of project management value engineering "

  2. Jenab Kamran, (2005) "Application of value engineering in the development of productivity paced"

  3. Nemati Ramazan, raeesi gholam ali, (2006) "Uncertainty in Value Engineering."

  4. "The concept, theory and principles of value engineering, “www.hamkelasy.com/branch/value_engineering.doc"

  5. Ahmadpur Mojtaba, Agharezaei Maysam, "Range of project management knowledge", Naghoos Publishing. Second Edition 2005.

  6. Phillips Josef, "IT Project Management: On Track Form Start to Finish “, ISBN: 978-964-8996-30-20924 H. Tohidi / Procedia Computer Science 3 (2011) 917–92


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