Lakhasly

Online English Summarizer tool, free and accurate!

Summarize result (50%)

. 1. INTRODUCTION
Many online social networks, including Facebook and Google+, enforce a Real-Name policy, requiring users to use
their real names when creating accounts [3, 2]. The cited
reasons for the Real-Name policy include that it improves
the quality of the content and the service (helping decrease
spam, bullying, and hacking), increases accountability, and
helps people to find each other. The Real-Name policy, however, also enables the social networks to tie user interests–as
reflected from their use of the online services–with their true
names, generating a treasure trove of consumer data. This
has resulted in many debates [13] and petitions [6], with
privacy advocates claiming that Real-Name policy erodes
online freedom [31]. Privacy-conscious users have started
finding ways to bypass the policy, hiding their real identity
while continuing to use these social networks [22].
Twitter, on the other hand, does not impose strict rules
for users to provide their real names, although it does require
them to register with and employ unique pseudonyms. Taking advantage of this lack of Real-Name policy, many Twitter users choose to employ pseudonyms that have no relation
to their real names. Some users choose such a pseudonym
only because they enjoy being associated with a particular fun or interesting pseudonym. But many users likely
choose pseudonyms with no relation to their real names
because they want to be anonymous on Twitter. For example some users may desire the ability to tweet messages
without revealing their actual identities. Other users may
desire to follow sensitive and controversial accounts without exposing their real identities. The lack of Real-Name
policy enforcement has turned Twitter into a popular information exchange portal where users share and access information without being identifiable–as is evident by Twitter’s
role in Egyptian revolution [25] and for reporting news in
Mexico [34]. However, there is a meaningful debate about
the pros and cons of online anonymity, as it allows people
to more easily spread false rumours [14], defame individuals [12], attack organizations [33], and even spread spam [41,
17].
In this work we use Twitter to study the prevalence and behavior of Identifiable users (those disclosing their full name)
and Anonymous users (those disclosing neither their first
nor last name). Although both on-line and off-line anonymity has been considered by researchers in psychology and
sociology, as discussed in Section 7, these studies have generally been carried out with small data sets and surveys.
There have also been a few data-driven studies of anonymity in blogs and postings to Web sites [16, 5, 36]. To ourknowledge, this paper is the first to conduct a large-scale
data-driven analysis of user anonymity in online social networks. The potential benefits of such a study include: (i) a
deeper understanding of the importance and role of anonymity in our society; (ii) guidance for the incorporation of
privacy and anonymity features in existing and future online social networks; (iii) and as we shall discuss in the body
of the paper, the discovery of illegal (such as child-porn and
terrorism) or controversial (such as ethnic or religious hate)
activities.


Original text

. 1. INTRODUCTION
Many online social networks, including Facebook and Google+, enforce a Real-Name policy, requiring users to use
their real names when creating accounts [3, 2]. The cited
reasons for the Real-Name policy include that it improves
the quality of the content and the service (helping decrease
spam, bullying, and hacking), increases accountability, and
helps people to find each other. The Real-Name policy, however, also enables the social networks to tie user interests–as
reflected from their use of the online services–with their true
names, generating a treasure trove of consumer data. This
has resulted in many debates [13] and petitions [6], with
privacy advocates claiming that Real-Name policy erodes
online freedom [31]. Privacy-conscious users have started
finding ways to bypass the policy, hiding their real identity
while continuing to use these social networks [22].
Twitter, on the other hand, does not impose strict rules
for users to provide their real names, although it does require
them to register with and employ unique pseudonyms. Taking advantage of this lack of Real-Name policy, many Twitter users choose to employ pseudonyms that have no relation
to their real names. Some users choose such a pseudonym
only because they enjoy being associated with a particular fun or interesting pseudonym. But many users likely
choose pseudonyms with no relation to their real names
because they want to be anonymous on Twitter. For example some users may desire the ability to tweet messages
without revealing their actual identities. Other users may
desire to follow sensitive and controversial accounts without exposing their real identities. The lack of Real-Name
policy enforcement has turned Twitter into a popular information exchange portal where users share and access information without being identifiable–as is evident by Twitter’s
role in Egyptian revolution [25] and for reporting news in
Mexico [34]. However, there is a meaningful debate about
the pros and cons of online anonymity, as it allows people
to more easily spread false rumours [14], defame individuals [12], attack organizations [33], and even spread spam [41,
17].
In this work we use Twitter to study the prevalence and behavior of Identifiable users (those disclosing their full name)
and Anonymous users (those disclosing neither their first
nor last name). Although both on-line and off-line anonymity has been considered by researchers in psychology and
sociology, as discussed in Section 7, these studies have generally been carried out with small data sets and surveys.
There have also been a few data-driven studies of anonymity in blogs and postings to Web sites [16, 5, 36]. To ourknowledge, this paper is the first to conduct a large-scale
data-driven analysis of user anonymity in online social networks. The potential benefits of such a study include: (i) a
deeper understanding of the importance and role of anonymity in our society; (ii) guidance for the incorporation of
privacy and anonymity features in existing and future online social networks; (iii) and as we shall discuss in the body
of the paper, the discovery of illegal (such as child-porn and
terrorism) or controversial (such as ethnic or religious hate)
activities.

Summarize English and Arabic text online

Summarize text automatically

Summarize English and Arabic text using the statistical algorithm and sorting sentences based on its importance

Download Summary

You can download the summary result with one of any available formats such as PDF,DOCX and TXT

Permanent URL

ٌYou can share the summary link easily, we keep the summary on the website for future reference,except for private summaries.

Other Features

We are working on adding new features to make summarization more easy and accurate


Latest summaries

مقارنة بین معلم...

مقارنة بین معلمي التربیة الإسلامیة ومعلمي الریاضیات في درجة استخدامهم لتكنولوجیا المعلومات والاتصالا...

عتبر الاتصال وس...

عتبر الاتصال وسيلة هادفة من الوسائل الرئيسية التي تستخدمها المنظمة في تحقيق أهدافها، إذ أن جميع العا...

مشكــلة البحث :...

مشكــلة البحث : لا تخلو الحياة الزوجية من وجود الخلافات بين الزوجين في الغالب ، ولكنها تتفاوت من حيث...

تعتبر العدالة ا...

تعتبر العدالة الاجتماعية من الصفات الأساسية لأي نظام سياسي فهي الإرادة الثابتة والأبدية لإعطاء كل فر...

أثر انهيار واحد...

أثر انهيار واحدة من أقدم وكالات السفر في العالم على ما يقدر بنحو 600000 مسافر في جميع أنحاء العالم ي...

ؤسسة محمد الخام...

ؤسسة محمد الخامس للتضامن هي مؤسسة تضامنية اجتماعية وطنية مغربية ذات منفعة عمومية واستقلال مالي. أُسس...

إذا كان عدد الم...

إذا كان عدد الموظفين في مكان واحد يتجاوز مائة ، يجب على صاحب العمل توظيف ممرض مؤهل لتقديم المعونة ال...

في أحد الليالي ...

في أحد الليالي المثلجة حيث ساد الظلام أرجاء المدينة وكست الثلوج الأرض وأغلقت أبواب المنازل لينعم أهل...

Ethics – What i...

Ethics – What is ethics? Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that includes the orga...

يتناول الفصل 3 ...

يتناول الفصل 3 من قانون العمل العماني الصادر بالمرسوم السلطاني رقم 35 لعام 2003 ، بصيغته المعدلة ، "...

this is the 202...

this is the 2020 Porsche Taikan and it is the most important car of the year that's because it's the...

Have you ever t...

Have you ever travelled to another part of your country and stayed for a few days? Travel within one...