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I/O system calls encapsulate device behaviors in generic classes
Device-driver layer hides differences among I/O controllers from kernel
New devices talking already-implemented protocols need no extra work
Each OS has its own I/O subsystem structures and device driver frameworks
Devices vary in many dimensions
Character-stream or block
Sequential or random-access
Synchronous or asynchronous (or both)
Sharable or dedicated
Speed of operation
read-write, read only, or write only


Original text

I/O system calls encapsulate device behaviors in generic classes
Device-driver layer hides differences among I/O controllers from kernel
New devices talking already-implemented protocols need no extra work
Each OS has its own I/O subsystem structures and device driver frameworks
Devices vary in many dimensions
Character-stream or block
Sequential or random-access
Synchronous or asynchronous (or both)
Sharable or dedicated
Speed of operation
read-write, read only, or write only

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