Lakhasly

Online English Summarizer tool, free and accurate!

Summarize result (90%)

Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have emerged as a promising alternative to con- ventional contrast agents (CAs) for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). They have been extensively investigated as CAs due to their high biocompatibility and excel- lent magnetic properties. Furthermore, the ease of functionalization of their surfaces with different types of ligands (antibodies, peptides, sugars, etc.) opens up the pos- sibility of carrying out molecular MRI. Thus, IONPs functionalized with epithelial growth factor receptor antibodies, short peptides, like RGD, or aptamers, among others, have been proposed for the diagnosis of various types of cancer, including breast, stomach, colon, kidney, liver or brain cancer. In addition to cancer diagnosis, different types of IONPs have been developed for other applications, such as the detection of brain inflammation or the early diagnosis of thrombosis. This review addresses key aspects in the development of IONPs for MRI applications, namely, synthesis of the inorganic core, functionalization processes to make IONPs biocom- patible and also to target them to specific tissues or cells, and finally in vivo studies in animal models, with special emphasis on tumor models.

Gadolinium-based chelates are a mainstay of contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the clinic. However, their toxicity elicits severe side effects and the Food and Drug Administration has issued many warnings about their potential retention in patients’ bodies, which causes safety concerns. Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) are a potentially attractive alternative, because of their nontoxic and biodegradable nature. Studies
in developing IONPs as T1 contrast agents have generated promising
results, but the complex, interrelated parameters influencing contrast enhancement make the development difficult, and IONPs suitable for T1 contrast enhancement have yet to make their way to clinical use. Here, the fundamental principles of MRI contrast agents are discussed, and the current status of MRI contrast agents is reviewed with a focus on the advantages and limitations of current T1 contrast agents and the potential of IONPs to serve as safe and improved alternative to gadolinium-based chelates. The past advances and current challenges in developing IONPs as a T1 contrast agent from a materials science perspective are presented, and how each of the
key material properties and environment variables affects the performance of IONPs is assessed. Finally, some potential approaches to develop high- performance and clinically relevant T1 contrast agents are discussed.


Original text

Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have emerged as a promising alternative to con- ventional contrast agents (CAs) for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). They have been extensively investigated as CAs due to their high biocompatibility and excel- lent magnetic properties. Furthermore, the ease of functionalization of their surfaces with different types of ligands (antibodies, peptides, sugars, etc.) opens up the pos- sibility of carrying out molecular MRI. Thus, IONPs functionalized with epithelial growth factor receptor antibodies, short peptides, like RGD, or aptamers, among others, have been proposed for the diagnosis of various types of cancer, including breast, stomach, colon, kidney, liver or brain cancer. In addition to cancer diagnosis, different types of IONPs have been developed for other applications, such as the detection of brain inflammation or the early diagnosis of thrombosis. This review addresses key aspects in the development of IONPs for MRI applications, namely, synthesis of the inorganic core, functionalization processes to make IONPs biocom- patible and also to target them to specific tissues or cells, and finally in vivo studies in animal models, with special emphasis on tumor models.


Gadolinium-based chelates are a mainstay of contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the clinic. However, their toxicity elicits severe side effects and the Food and Drug Administration has issued many warnings about their potential retention in patients’ bodies, which causes safety concerns. Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) are a potentially attractive alternative, because of their nontoxic and biodegradable nature. Studies
in developing IONPs as T1 contrast agents have generated promising
results, but the complex, interrelated parameters influencing contrast enhancement make the development difficult, and IONPs suitable for T1 contrast enhancement have yet to make their way to clinical use. Here, the fundamental principles of MRI contrast agents are discussed, and the current status of MRI contrast agents is reviewed with a focus on the advantages and limitations of current T1 contrast agents and the potential of IONPs to serve as safe and improved alternative to gadolinium-based chelates. The past advances and current challenges in developing IONPs as a T1 contrast agent from a materials science perspective are presented, and how each of the
key material properties and environment variables affects the performance of IONPs is assessed. Finally, some potential approaches to develop high- performance and clinically relevant T1 contrast agents are discussed.

Summarize English and Arabic text online

Summarize text automatically

Summarize English and Arabic text using the statistical algorithm and sorting sentences based on its importance

Download Summary

You can download the summary result with one of any available formats such as PDF,DOCX and TXT

Permanent URL

ٌYou can share the summary link easily, we keep the summary on the website for future reference,except for private summaries.

Other Features

We are working on adding new features to make summarization more easy and accurate


Latest summaries

4 a) Home heati...

4 a) Home heating costs Vs Size Hypothesis H0: There is no significant relationship between home hea...

تحديد ما إذا كا...

تحديد ما إذا كانت ذات قيمة. قد يتم تخصيص الموارد في مشروع أي تعهد يتطلب استخدام الموارد (المال والوق...

אושר אושר הוא ...

אושר אושר הוא שאיפה אחת שכל האנשים חולקים. אף אחד לא רוצה להיות עצוב ומדוכא. כולנו ראינו אנשים שת...

ويعود تسمية شار...

ويعود تسمية شارع "محمد علي" بهذا الاسم، نسبة إلى محمد علي باشا، مؤسس مصر الحديثة، حيث أشار البعض إلى...

العلاقة بين الأ...

العلاقة بين الأدب والمجتمع قائمة بالفعل وبالقوة، فالأدب لا يكون أدبا إلا فى ظل شروط اجتماعية محدَدة....

(فن الاتصالات ا...

(فن الاتصالات البصرية) هو نهج إبداعي يقوم به مصمم أو مجموعة من المصممين بناء على طلب العميل أو الزبو...

ومن أهم المسائل...

ومن أهم المسائل التي واجهت العلماء هي الخلط بين سلوك مزيج الضوء، والمسمى باللون الجمعي،وسلوك الدهان ...

تتطور البشرية ف...

تتطور البشرية في العلم والتقنية ومنتجاتها، لكنها للأسف تتدهور في القيم والمثل والأخلاق. أوليس عجبًا ...

اتخذت فرنسا ضرب...

اتخذت فرنسا ضرب الداي حسين للقنصل الفرنسي بالمروحة دريعة لاستعمار الجزائر, لكن السبب الحقيقي هو رغبة...

Helping learner...

Helping learners participate in their own language development and shape their own path should indee...

ﻟﻘﺪ ارﺗﻔﻊ ، ﻓﻲ ...

ﻟﻘﺪ ارﺗﻔﻊ ، ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﻘﻮد الأخيرة ، ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ درﺟﺎت الحرارة ﻋﻠﻰ سطح الكـرة الأرضية . ﺗﺴﻤﻰ هﺬﻩ اﻟﻈﺎهﺮة " الاح...

يعتبر العلم احد...

يعتبر العلم احد الأمور المهمه في كل المجتمعات فهو يكبر و يتطور و تتعدد مجالاته وبفعل جهود العلماء ال...