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Firstly, behavioral genetics research has shown that while genetic factors play a role in determining behavior and development, they are not the sole determinants.However, environmental factors, such as exposure to language-rich environments, can also play a crucial role in language development, highlighting the intricate interplay between nature and nurture.Overall, the evidence from behavioral genetics, epigenetics, and the recognition of the interaction between nature and nurture supports the argument that nurture (the social environment) is more important than nature (genetic factors) in shaping behavior and development.Studies of twins and adoptees indicate that environmental factors also significantly contribute to psychological traits.The reading emphasizes the complex interplay between genes and the environment, highlighting the crucial role of the social environment in influencing individual differences.For instance, studies on rat pups have shown that the amount of maternal care they receive can alter their epigenetic marks and influence their stress responses in adulthood.Instead of defending extreme nativist or nurturist positions, researchers are interested in investigating how nature and nurture interact in a variety of ways.


Original text

Firstly, behavioral genetics research has shown that while genetic factors play a role in determining behavior and development, they are not the sole determinants. Studies of twins and adoptees indicate that environmental factors also significantly contribute to psychological traits. For example, identical twins raised apart may still exhibit similarities, suggesting a strong genetic influence. However, environmental factors, such as exposure to language-rich environments, can also play a crucial role in language development, highlighting the intricate interplay between nature and nurture.
Furthermore, the concept of epigenetics highlights how environmental influences can affect gene expression. The environment can impact which genes are switched on or off, leading to changes in behavior and development. For instance, studies on rat pups have shown that the amount of maternal care they receive can alter their epigenetic marks and influence their stress responses in adulthood. This demonstrates that the social environment can have long-term impacts on an individual's mental health and stress resilience.


Moreover, the interaction between
nature and nurture is recognized in contemporary views. Instead of defending extreme nativist or nurturist positions, researchers are interested in investigating how nature and nurture interact in a variety of ways. For example, genetic predispositions and environmental triggers are both required for the development of certain mental disorders, according to the diathesis-stress model. This suggests that both genetic factors and the social environment contribute to psychological outcomes.


Overall, the evidence from behavioral genetics, epigenetics, and the recognition of the interaction between nature and nurture supports the argument that nurture (the social environment) is more important than nature (genetic factors) in shaping behavior and development. The reading emphasizes the complex interplay between genes and the environment, highlighting the crucial role of the social environment in influencing individual differences.


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