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Lecture 1in Aqeeda:
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
الحمد لله رب العالمين ، الصلاة والسلام علي خير المرسلين وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين .
اللهم ما سهل إلا ما جعلته سهلا و أنت تجعل الحزن إن شئت سهلا.
اللهم اشرح لي صدري ويسر لي أمري واحلل عقدة من لساني يفقه قولي ، أما بعد .
Besmellah we start:
This will be the first lecture in the 2nd term, and this will be the first lecture in Aqeeda subject or in the creed of the Muslim.
We finished in first semester talking about some principals (قواعد) rules or general maxims that have to do with the Names and Attributes of Allah az wa jal, Insha’Allah we will precede and continue with this topic starting this semester Insha’Allah.
When it comes to the Attributes of Allah az wa jal, they can be categorized from different perspectivesبإعتبارات مختلفة.
The First Category:
The first way to categorize the attributes of Allah az wa jal has to do with what's affirmed for Allah az wa jal and what is rejected.
الإثبات والنفي أو الثبوت وعدمه .
So, we categorize the attributes of Allah in this aspect is based on what is approved, what is affirmed in the deen compare to what is not, or what is negated.
So sefat thubotiyah (صفات ثبوتية) affirmed attributes and these are the ones that Allah az wa jal affirmed for himself or the prophetﷺ affirmed for Allah az wa jal like الحياةlife , knowledge,العلمthe face , coming down , being above or upon the throne , other attributes and all these attributes are attributes of praise and perfection and its most of the attributes of Allah az wa jal as mentioned in the Quran and sunnah, and obviously our position with that we have to affirm what Allah az wa jal affirmed for himself,
So, we can call these for example affirmed attributes or positive attributes.
Then you have the negative attributes and those are the attributes that Allah az wa jal denied to be like, Allah az wa jal denied to have any of it as well as the prophet ﷺ did.
So, for example death: Allah az wa jal doesn't die and he made that clear, sleeping, oppression, slumber, so all these are negative attributes as you can see,
Allah az wa jal is above having these attributes.
And with these attributes our position is we reject them for Allah az wa jal and at the same time we approve, or we affirm their opposite.
So now we not only reject them, (Our position)is not only reject what Allah rejected and deny for himself but we also affirm the opposite.
So, in another words:
• If I reject that Allah dies, then I have to affirm that Allah is ever living.
• If I reject that Allah sleeps then I have to affirm that Allah is always awake.
• If I have to reject that Allah commits oppression, then I have to affirm that Allah is alwaysjust.
So, this is the first way or the first perspective, the first angle where we can categorize the attributes of Allah with Affirmation and negation.
The Second Category:
The second way to categorize the attributes of Allah az Wa jal is concerning the proofs over it, what is the proof over it, this is one of the attributes of Allah or it's not.
So, one Way is (صفات خبرية) meaning that this kind of attributes cannot be known without Allah az wa jal or the messengerﷺ telling us about, meaning it's not something we can imagine, it's not something we can make Ijtehad (اجتهاد)about, It's not something we can figure out by ourselves.
Sefat khabareia(صفات خبرية) meaning we need report, we need a revelation from Allah to his messenger for us to know about it.
* Also known as Sameaia or Naqleya (سمعية أو نقلية) meaning we have to hear it from the prophetﷺ or from Allah .
Naqleya(نقلية)meaning it has to be conveyed to us.
So, these attributes (قد تكون ذاتيه)meaning it has to do with theessence of Allah az wa jal like the face, the hands, thefoot, the chin, the eyes.
So, these attributes either attributes with the essence of Allah meaning attributes that are Zateya (ذاتية)part of Allah az wa jal,
• It could be the actions of Allah azwa jal, attributes that express actions of Allah az wa jal likehappiness,laughing, Alestewaa(الإستواء) being upon the thronecoming down the last third of the night, so these are actions.
These actions and the ones the essence of Allah meaning Zateya meaning his face, his eyes,his this his that.
So, these attributes we can only know if we are being told by Allahor his messenger, that’s why it calledSefat Khabareia (صفات خبرية) reported attributes, they needed to be reportedto us to figure them out or to know them.
So, any attributes whether it has to do with the essence of Allah, or it has to do with the actions of Allah.
If there is no way to know it otherthan revelation that's conveyedto us, then it's considered sefat khabareia(صفاتخبرية) meaning attribute that needed to be reported.
Then the other kind: Sefat Sameiyahسمعيةعقلية.
1) The first type:we said we call it (سمعية او نقلية) Sameyah or Naqleyah, we need to hear it, it has to conveyed to us
It has to be transmitted to us that’s (نقلية).

2) The second type: سمعية عقلية
Sameia Aaqeliameaning attributes thatالنقلmeaningrevelation and the wayit's transmitted to us is a proofas well as intellectualproof.
(هذه الصفات يشترك في اثباتها الدليل السمعي يعنيالنقلي والدليل العقلي)
Meaning we can learn about it bybeing conveyed to us, but also, we can't figure them out without being convey to us.
In other words: ex (الحياة) If we did not have that Allah revealing to us on mentioning in the Quran or prophet Muhammad telling us that Allah is (Ever alive)
 Can we figure that out in our own?
- Yes, we can because we cannot imagine that Allah is dead or you cannot imagine that Allah was dead and then he came back,
- We cannot that intellectual (عقلي) is impossible!
- Who runs the world if Allah dies?
• So yes, we can be told through the Quran,through the sunnah butalso, we would be able to figureout in our own.
• We cannot compare to the other types of attributesAl khabareia (الصفات الخبرية)
• We cannot figure out that Allah haseyes, we don't know unless we are being told, So that's why we only find out that Allah has a foot, that Allah has eyes only because he told us in the Quran or prophet Muhammad told us in the Sunnah .
• We cannot sit there and say Allah should have eyes.
So that's the 1st type.
The second type we said:
It can be conveyed to us but at the same time also we can think about it and figure it out by our selves,and we said like Al Haya, الحياةknowledgeالعلم
 Do we need an Aya to tell us that Allah is all knowledgeable?
 Do we need a Hadith to tell us that Allah knows everything?
- No if he's God he must know everything because he is the owner of this universe.
So, he must know everything that goes on in it,otherwise he doesn't deserve to be God, Right so something like that.

Also, capacityالقدرة,ability, the might to be able to do whatever he wants he has to otherwise he doesn't deserve to be God if there are things in this universe that he cannot control.
So, these are what have to do with essence of Allah and also there are Sefat fieliaفعليةhas to do with actions, So attributes of actions
So, we can see in both typesالخبريةAl khabareia and Al Aquileiaالعقليةin both parts there are some kinds of essence that inherent attributes of Allah az wa jal and there are actions attributes of Allah az wa jal.
like creationمثل الخلق:
 Did we need a Hadith or an Aya to tell us that Allah created us, or we know we can think?
- We can figure out that if he's Allah that we should worship because he created us, who else created us,how did we come?
The Third Category:
The third way to categorize the attributes of Allah az wa jal has to do concerning (this is third category or the third way) concerning the attributes whether they have to do with the essence of Allah or they have to do with the actions of Allah and those are three types .
Three Types Of Sefat (Attributes)
*************
1) Sefat Zateya: inherent attribute of Allah az wa jal, has to do with the essence of Allah, inherently of Allah az wa jal meaning these are attributes that Allah has been always having , And has been always possessing,Right So they are not attributes thatwe can't say he had and then he doesn't have anymore , very important pay attention to that.


For example:
- Knowledge is something that Allah az wa jal always have its part of Allah, youcannot think that Allah at one point or at certain point didn't have knowledge, he always have knowledge.
So, it became inherent attribute of Allah az wa jal.
- Life:You cannot say that Allah was dead,you cannot think that Allah might die at one point, That's impossible, So that's inherent (صفة ذاتية).
- Hearing,Seeing,theface,thehand, all that, so these attributes sefat zateia also known as (الصفات اللازمة) Why?
(لانها صفات ملازمة للذات لا تنفك عنها )
It's always part of Allah az wa jal cannot be separated from Allah az wa jal.
2) Sefat Fealiah (صفات فعلية):Action, Attributes that have to do with actions, Things that Allah az wa jal does.
So,The first type:
was inherent (part of Allah)
The second type:
Actions of Allah, Attributes that have to do with actions of Allah, and these have to do with the will of Allah
In other words:
If Allah wants to do, he does, if Allah doesn't want to do them, he doesn't do them,
So,it’s not always the Case, it’snot always with Allah.
For example:
Coming down to the lowestheaven (النزول إلى السماء الدنيا)
Allah is not always down, because if he's always downthen thatwould be inherent attribute.
*So in the last part of night he comes down, So that makes it an action because he's not always down , So it's attribute that has to do with the action of Allah az wa jal .
* Anger, Happiness , laughing , So that happens in certain times .
*Allah is not always laughing but Allah will laugh at certain situations and will not laugh at others.
*Allah is not always angry (My Mercy preceded my wrath my anger) So he's merciful all the time.
 Do you understand,so that's the difference and these attributes are also called Sefat Ikhteyariah (صفات اختيارية)?
Sefat Ikhteyariah meaning Allah chooses if he wants to do them or not,alright.
But the key that you need to know that the difference in Al-sefat Al-zateya is something that always there, Allah always possesses or has.
(Action attributes) they have to do with the will of Allah, these Actions that if Allah wants to do, he will do, alright that's why (فعلية) Feāleya meaning actions.
*In other words:
- If Allah wants to come down, he comes down, If Allah wants to be above the throne, he’sabove thethrone.
- If Allah az wa jal wants to smile at nation he will, if he wants, if Allah wants to laugh, he laughs, so that'sAl dubet (الضابط)concerning that.
*In other words:
- You don't say Allah az wa jal lives if he wants,not because he is always alive so that goes to the inherent attributes.
- You don't say Allah chooses to know;No, Allah knows everything all the time So that's inherent attributes.
The Third Part :
(صفات ذاتيه فعلية باعتبارين)
Attributes inherent and action attributes looking at it from different perspective,so if you are looking at the fundamental of the Actionsالأصلthe root of the attributes then it's an inherent,Right.
And if we look at, if you evaluate the attributes based on one single action here and there right then it's action attributes.
For example:
Talking, Allah az wa jal talks, Quran is the speech of Allah, Allah speaks (may be speaks is a better term)
So, we know inherently Allah always has the ability to talk " right " has the ability to talk all the time, there was no time that Allah didn't talk if he wanted to talk.
So, if we look at it from this perspective that has to do with the root, has to do with the foundation,then we say we can consider speaking is one of that inherent attributesof Allah az wa jal because he always able to speak, Right .

Now if we look at the specific speech of Allah az wa jal , specific moment that Allah spoke, specific instant where Allah az wa jal talk so this has to do with actions and has to do with the will of Allah as wa jal then it considered صفة فعلية.
When Allah wants to talk, he talks, when he doesn't want to talk, he doesn't talk, But Allah was always able to talk so these are attributes zateyahfealiah(ذاتية فعلية).

نقف هنا إن شاء الله
سبحانك اللهم وبحمدك،
أشهد أن لا إله إلا انت أستغفرك وأتوب إليك .

*************


Original text

Lecture 1in Aqeeda:
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
الحمد لله رب العالمين ، الصلاة والسلام علي خير المرسلين وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين .
اللهم ما سهل إلا ما جعلته سهلا و أنت تجعل الحزن إن شئت سهلا.
اللهم اشرح لي صدري ويسر لي أمري واحلل عقدة من لساني يفقه قولي ، أما بعد .
Besmellah we start:
This will be the first lecture in the 2nd term, and this will be the first lecture in Aqeeda subject or in the creed of the Muslim.
We finished in first semester talking about some principals (قواعد) rules or general maxims that have to do with the Names and Attributes of Allah az wa jal, Insha’Allah we will precede and continue with this topic starting this semester Insha’Allah.
When it comes to the Attributes of Allah az wa jal, they can be categorized from different perspectivesبإعتبارات مختلفة.
🔶The First Category:
The first way to categorize the attributes of Allah az wa jal has to do with what's affirmed for Allah az wa jal and what is rejected.
الإثبات والنفي أو الثبوت وعدمه .
So, we categorize the attributes of Allah in this aspect is based on what is approved, what is affirmed in the deen compare to what is not, or what is negated.
So sefat thubotiyah (صفات ثبوتية) affirmed attributes and these are the ones that Allah az wa jal affirmed for himself or the prophetﷺ affirmed for Allah az wa jal like الحياةlife , knowledge,العلمthe face , coming down , being above or upon the throne , other attributes and all these attributes are attributes of praise and perfection and its most of the attributes of Allah az wa jal as mentioned in the Quran and sunnah, and obviously our position with that we have to affirm what Allah az wa jal affirmed for himself,
So, we can call these for example affirmed attributes or positive attributes.
Then you have the negative attributes and those are the attributes that Allah az wa jal denied to be like, Allah az wa jal denied to have any of it as well as the prophet ﷺ did.
So, for example death: Allah az wa jal doesn't die and he made that clear, sleeping, oppression, slumber, so all these are negative attributes as you can see,
Allah az wa jal is above having these attributes.
And with these attributes our position is we reject them for Allah az wa jal and at the same time we approve, or we affirm their opposite.
🔸So now we not only reject them, (Our position)is not only reject what Allah rejected and deny for himself but we also affirm the opposite.
So, in another words:
• If I reject that Allah dies, then I have to affirm that Allah is ever living.
• If I reject that Allah sleeps then I have to affirm that Allah is always awake.
• If I have to reject that Allah commits oppression, then I have to affirm that Allah is alwaysjust.
So, this is the first way or the first perspective, the first angle where we can categorize the attributes of Allah with Affirmation and negation.
🔶The Second Category:
The second way to categorize the attributes of Allah az Wa jal is concerning the proofs over it, what is the proof over it, this is one of the attributes of Allah or it's not.
So, one Way is (صفات خبرية) meaning that this kind of attributes cannot be known without Allah az wa jal or the messengerﷺ telling us about, meaning it's not something we can imagine, it's not something we can make Ijtehad (اجتهاد)about, It's not something we can figure out by ourselves.
Sefat khabareia(صفات خبرية) meaning we need report, we need a revelation from Allah to his messenger for us to know about it.



  • Also known as Sameaia or Naqleya (سمعية أو نقلية) meaning we have to hear it from the prophetﷺ or from Allah .
    Naqleya(نقلية)meaning it has to be conveyed to us.
    So, these attributes (قد تكون ذاتيه)meaning it has to do with theessence of Allah az wa jal like the face, the hands, thefoot, the chin, the eyes.
    So, these attributes either attributes with the essence of Allah meaning attributes that are Zateya (ذاتية)part of Allah az wa jal,
    • It could be the actions of Allah azwa jal, attributes that express actions of Allah az wa jal likehappiness,laughing, Alestewaa(الإستواء) being upon the thronecoming down the last third of the night, so these are actions.
    These actions and the ones the essence of Allah meaning Zateya meaning his face, his eyes,his this his that.
    So, these attributes we can only know if we are being told by Allahor his messenger, that’s why it calledSefat Khabareia (صفات خبرية) reported attributes, they needed to be reportedto us to figure them out or to know them.
    So, any attributes whether it has to do with the essence of Allah, or it has to do with the actions of Allah.
    If there is no way to know it otherthan revelation that's conveyedto us, then it's considered sefat khabareia(صفاتخبرية) meaning attribute that needed to be reported.
    Then the other kind: Sefat Sameiyahسمعيةعقلية.
    1) The first type:we said we call it (سمعية او نقلية) Sameyah or Naqleyah, we need to hear it, it has to conveyed to us
    It has to be transmitted to us that’s (نقلية).


2) The second type: سمعية عقلية
Sameia Aaqeliameaning attributes thatالنقلmeaningrevelation and the wayit's transmitted to us is a proofas well as intellectualproof.
(هذه الصفات يشترك في اثباتها الدليل السمعي يعنيالنقلي والدليل العقلي)
Meaning we can learn about it bybeing conveyed to us, but also, we can't figure them out without being convey to us.
In other words: ex (الحياة) If we did not have that Allah revealing to us on mentioning in the Quran or prophet Muhammad telling us that Allah is (Ever alive)
 Can we figure that out in our own?



  • Yes, we can because we cannot imagine that Allah is dead or you cannot imagine that Allah was dead and then he came back,

  • We cannot that intellectual (عقلي) is impossible!

  • Who runs the world if Allah dies?
    • So yes, we can be told through the Quran,through the sunnah butalso, we would be able to figureout in our own.
    • We cannot compare to the other types of attributesAl khabareia (الصفات الخبرية)
    • We cannot figure out that Allah haseyes, we don't know unless we are being told, So that's why we only find out that Allah has a foot, that Allah has eyes only because he told us in the Quran or prophet Muhammad told us in the Sunnah .
    • We cannot sit there and say Allah should have eyes.
    So that's the 1st type.
    The second type we said:
    It can be conveyed to us but at the same time also we can think about it and figure it out by our selves,and we said like Al Haya, الحياةknowledgeالعلم
     Do we need an Aya to tell us that Allah is all knowledgeable?
     Do we need a Hadith to tell us that Allah knows everything?

  • No if he's God he must know everything because he is the owner of this universe.
    So, he must know everything that goes on in it,otherwise he doesn't deserve to be God, Right so something like that.


Also, capacityالقدرة,ability, the might to be able to do whatever he wants he has to otherwise he doesn't deserve to be God if there are things in this universe that he cannot control.
So, these are what have to do with essence of Allah and also there are Sefat fieliaفعليةhas to do with actions, So attributes of actions
So, we can see in both typesالخبريةAl khabareia and Al Aquileiaالعقليةin both parts there are some kinds of essence that inherent attributes of Allah az wa jal and there are actions attributes of Allah az wa jal.
like creationمثل الخلق:
 Did we need a Hadith or an Aya to tell us that Allah created us, or we know we can think?



  • We can figure out that if he's Allah that we should worship because he created us, who else created us,how did we come?
    🔶The Third Category:
    The third way to categorize the attributes of Allah az wa jal has to do concerning (this is third category or the third way) concerning the attributes whether they have to do with the essence of Allah or they have to do with the actions of Allah and those are three types .
    🔺Three Types Of Sefat (Attributes)


    1) Sefat Zateya: inherent attribute of Allah az wa jal, has to do with the essence of Allah, inherently of Allah az wa jal meaning these are attributes that Allah has been always having , And has been always possessing,Right So they are not attributes thatwe can't say he had and then he doesn't have anymore , very important pay attention to that.



For example:



  • Knowledge is something that Allah az wa jal always have its part of Allah, youcannot think that Allah at one point or at certain point didn't have knowledge, he always have knowledge.
    So, it became inherent attribute of Allah az wa jal.

  • Life:You cannot say that Allah was dead,you cannot think that Allah might die at one point, That's impossible, So that's inherent (صفة ذاتية).

  • Hearing,Seeing,theface,thehand, all that, so these attributes sefat zateia also known as (الصفات اللازمة) Why?
    (لانها صفات ملازمة للذات لا تنفك عنها )
    It's always part of Allah az wa jal cannot be separated from Allah az wa jal.
    2) Sefat Fealiah (صفات فعلية):Action, Attributes that have to do with actions, Things that Allah az wa jal does.
    So,The first type:
    was inherent (part of Allah)
    The second type:
    Actions of Allah, Attributes that have to do with actions of Allah, and these have to do with the will of Allah
    In other words:
    If Allah wants to do, he does, if Allah doesn't want to do them, he doesn't do them,
    So,it’s not always the Case, it’snot always with Allah.
    For example:
    Coming down to the lowestheaven (النزول إلى السماء الدنيا)
    Allah is not always down, because if he's always downthen thatwould be inherent attribute.
    *So in the last part of night he comes down, So that makes it an action because he's not always down , So it's attribute that has to do with the action of Allah az wa jal .

  • Anger, Happiness , laughing , So that happens in certain times .
    Allah is not always laughing but Allah will laugh at certain situations and will not laugh at others.
    Allah is not always angry (My Mercy preceded my wrath my anger) So he's merciful all the time.
     Do you understand,so that's the difference and these attributes are also called Sefat Ikhteyariah (صفات اختيارية)?
    Sefat Ikhteyariah meaning Allah chooses if he wants to do them or not,alright.
    But the key that you need to know that the difference in Al-sefat Al-zateya is something that always there, Allah always possesses or has.
    (Action attributes) they have to do with the will of Allah, these Actions that if Allah wants to do, he will do, alright that's why (فعلية) Feāleya meaning actions.
    *In other words:

  • If Allah wants to come down, he comes down, If Allah wants to be above the throne, he’sabove thethrone.

  • If Allah az wa jal wants to smile at nation he will, if he wants, if Allah wants to laugh, he laughs, so that'sAl dubet (الضابط)concerning that.
    *In other words:

  • You don't say Allah az wa jal lives if he wants,not because he is always alive so that goes to the inherent attributes.

  • You don't say Allah chooses to know;No, Allah knows everything all the time So that's inherent attributes.
    🔺The Third Part :
    (صفات ذاتيه فعلية باعتبارين)
    Attributes inherent and action attributes looking at it from different perspective,so if you are looking at the fundamental of the Actionsالأصلthe root of the attributes then it's an inherent,Right.
    And if we look at, if you evaluate the attributes based on one single action here and there right then it's action attributes.
    For example:
    Talking, Allah az wa jal talks, Quran is the speech of Allah, Allah speaks (may be speaks is a better term)
    So, we know inherently Allah always has the ability to talk " right " has the ability to talk all the time, there was no time that Allah didn't talk if he wanted to talk.
    So, if we look at it from this perspective that has to do with the root, has to do with the foundation,then we say we can consider speaking is one of that inherent attributesof Allah az wa jal because he always able to speak, Right .


Now if we look at the specific speech of Allah az wa jal , specific moment that Allah spoke, specific instant where Allah az wa jal talk so this has to do with actions and has to do with the will of Allah as wa jal then it considered صفة فعلية.
When Allah wants to talk, he talks, when he doesn't want to talk, he doesn't talk, But Allah was always able to talk so these are attributes zateyahfealiah(ذاتية فعلية).


نقف هنا إن شاء الله
سبحانك اللهم وبحمدك،
أشهد أن لا إله إلا انت أستغفرك وأتوب إليك .



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