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Cognitive accounts of second language acquisition We have just noted that learners may use their L1 as both a means of learning an L2 (when we speak of transfer) and as a means of communicating.The former consist of the mechanisms that learners use to (1) notice features in the input, (2) compare these features with those that are currently part of their mental grammars or interlanguages, and (3) integrate the new features into their interlanguages.The latter consist of conscious or potentially conscious attempts on the part of the learner to employ their avail- able linguistic resources, for example by developing their ability to use the L2 fluently or by compensating for inadequate knowledge when communicating a particular message.(1987) observes, interlanguage theory has undergone almost constant devel- opment, but one common theme is the notion of hypothesis testing, i.e. the idea that learners form hypotheses about what the rules of the target language are and then set about testing them, confirming them if they find supportive evidence in the input and rejecting them if they receive negative evidence.As Mcl.aughlin.


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Cognitive accounts of second language acquisition We have just noted that learners may use their L1 as both a means of learning an L2 (when we speak of transfer) and as a means of communicating. This is an example of a broad distinction between learning processes and commun- ication processes. The former consist of the mechanisms that learners use to (1) notice features in the input, (2) compare these features with those that are currently part of their mental grammars or interlanguages, and (3) integrate the new features into their interlanguages. The latter consist of conscious or potentially conscious attempts on the part of the learner to employ their avail- able linguistic resources, for example by developing their ability to use the L2 fluently or by compensating for inadequate knowledge when communicating a particular message. In addition to transfer, learners use a variety of processes to learn an 1.2. A number of different theories of SLA have provided accounts of them. These theories are cognitive in nature, i.e. they attempt to account for the mental processes that enable learners to work on input, and for the knowledge- systems which they construct and manifest in output. Perhaps the best known is interlanguage theory. The term interlanguage was coined by Selinker (1972) to refer to the interim grammars which learn- ers build on their way to full target language competence. As Mcl.aughlin. (1987) observes, interlanguage theory has undergone almost constant devel- opment, but one common theme is the notion of hypothesis testing, i.e. the idea that learners form hypotheses about what the rules of the target language are and then set about testing them, confirming them if they find supportive evidence in the input and rejecting them if they receive negative evidence. This process takes place largely on a subconscious level. Interlanguage theory has also identified a number of other, more specific processes such as overgeneral- ization (i.e. the extension of an L2 rule to a context in which it does not apply in the target language) and simplification (i.e. the reduction of the target lan- guage system to a simpler form). Early work on learner errors, acquisition orders, and developmental sequences was closely related to interlanguage theory.

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