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?Subcontracting
Public/ Public partnerships
Private/ Public partnerships
Use of Voluntary Organizations
Commercial
Public limited company (plc) Partnerships and sole proprietor businesses (usually privately owned) - Franchising - Management contracting - Private/public partnerships - Strategic alliances
Joint ventures - Consortium - type
Voluntary
Charitable associations and trusts at national and local levels, including business/professional, sports, heritage and community groups
M A J O R S T A K E H O L D E R T Y P E S I N T O U R I S M
Public (government and government - funded organizations ) ?These are the five principal management skills required in this industry
Roles, Responsibilities, and Skills of a Management
Roles, Responsibilities, and Skills of a Management
Functions of
Management
Planning
Organizing
Staffing Directing
Controlling
M A J O R S T A K E H O L D E R T Y P E S I N T O U R I S M
There are three types of suppliers in the tourism industry
Public (government and government - funded organizations)
C ommercial
O perations
V oluntary
O rganizations
M A J O R S T A K E H O L D E R T Y P E S I N T O U R I S M
Table 1: Types of Stakeholders in Tourism
Stakeholder Type Direct Operator Other Operation Types
Public
Central government : government department (e .Importance of
Management in the Tourism
Industry
P RO B L E M S
AND
S O LU T I O N S I N
M A N AG E M E N T
F U N C T I O N S 1 - The decreases of management performance levels due to workload and less efficiency 2 - Sometimes management is allotted a budget to cover all expenses including the payrolls as well and being understaffed is also a common problem faced by the companies.In addition, voluntary organizations across a spectrum of professional and leisure fields provide help in promoting destinations, interpretation services for visitors, and administration and staffing for sports and arts events festivals, for example .Franchising - where a business concept including a proprietary trademark/license, an operations 'recipe', and backup management training and support systems, is franchised to another operator in exchange for a set - up fee and an annual royalty .A consortium is a looser arrangement where individual businesses retain autonomy while engaging in activities such as joint purchasing and joint promotion .There are some common management functions problems and challenges:
P RO B L E M S
AND
S O LU T I O N S I N
M A N AG E M E N T
F U N C T I O N S 3 - More staff but less efficient work from management results in lack of communication, which then creates misunderstandings and problems .Middle management requires a discipline that consists of a set of five basic functions : planning, organizing , staffing , directing, and controlling .It involves different activities such as studying tour destinations , planning and organizing tours , and providing accommodation .Management in the tourism industry provides broad coverage of knowledge and skills for successful management, including finance , marketing , meeting customer expectations, and managing employees .o It manages staff, and daily operations and sets their goals of achieving tasks and satisfying as many tourists and guests as they can .The role of management varies from one organization to the other, including different roles of each title , for example :
Higher management is only responsible for maintaining the budget and focusing on promoting and increasing the tourism industry .Local government : cultural and recreation facilities and services, physical planning
Government agencies National tourism organizations, heritage, sports, and culture organizations.departments dealing with the tourism industry, arts and sports, economic development, physical planning, travel, passports, and immigration) .Thus, ownership is spread among organizations, such as pension funds, and individuals .Others provide comprehensive backup reservation technologies with associated international branding and marketing benefits .Similarly, airline code sharing and marketing agreements by Star Alliance and One World provide marketing benefits to their members .Central government departments and government - funded organizations may be directly or indirectly involved in tourism .????g .?e .???g .???????g .???


Original text

❑ Management means directing and controlling a group of people in an organization to reach its objectives . ❑ It is a process of planning , decision - making , organizing , and controlling human resources to reach its goals effectively . ❑ The role of tourist organizations and their management is to create and maintain a balance between state , market , and society organizations . ❑ Management functions create new values through improved services that respect the social and economic needs of tourists . It involves different activities such as studying tour destinations , planning and organizing tours , and providing accommodation .

Management Function in the Tourism Sector
❑ Management in the tourism industry provides broad coverage of knowledge and skills for successful management, including finance , marketing , meeting customer expectations, and managing employees . ❑ Management's role in the tourism industry is to make sure to create a balance between the customer market , society , and the organization itself . Tourism has its own 7 P’s of management .

Importance of Management in the Tourism Industry
Importance of

Management in the

Tourism

Industry
Importance of Management in the Tourism Industry
• Management in the tourism industry addresses teamwork . • It manages staff, and daily operations and sets their goals of achieving tasks and satisfying as many tourists and guests as they can .
Importance of

Management in the Tourism

Industry
P RO B L E M S

AND

S O LU T I O N S I N

M A N AG E M E N T

F U N C T I O N S 1 - The decreases of management performance levels due to workload and less efficiency 2 - Sometimes management is allotted a budget to cover all expenses including the payrolls as well and being understaffed is also a common problem faced by the companies.
There are some common management functions problems and challenges:
P RO B L E M S

AND

S O LU T I O N S I N

M A N AG E M E N T

F U N C T I O N S 3 - More staff but less efficient work from management results in lack of communication, which then creates misunderstandings and problems . 4 - Acknowledging and then working on improving the teamwork among employees is also a big challenge for management to overcome .

There are some common management functions problems and challenges:
❑ The role of management varies from one organization to the other, including different roles of each title , for example :
Higher management is only responsible for maintaining the budget and focusing on promoting and increasing the tourism industry .
Middle management requires a discipline that consists of a set of five basic functions : planning, organizing , staffing , directing, and controlling . These are the five principal management skills required in this industry
Roles, Responsibilities, and Skills of a Management
Roles, Responsibilities, and Skills of a Management
Functions of

Management
Planning
Organizing
Staffing Directing
Controlling
M A J O R S T A K E H O L D E R T Y P E S I N T O U R I S M
There are three types of suppliers in the tourism industry
Public (government and government - funded organizations)
C ommercial

O perations
V oluntary

O rganizations
M A J O R S T A K E H O L D E R T Y P E S I N T O U R I S M
Table 1: Types of Stakeholders in Tourism
Stakeholder Type Direct Operator Other Operation Types
Public
Central government : government department (e . g . departments dealing with the tourism industry, arts and sports, economic development, physical planning, travel, passports, and immigration) .
Local government : cultural and recreation facilities and services, physical planning
Government agencies National tourism organizations, heritage, sports, and culture organizations.
Subcontracting

Public/ Public partnerships
Private/ Public partnerships
Use of Voluntary Organizations
Commercial
Public limited company (plc) Partnerships and sole proprietor businesses (usually privately owned) - Franchising - Management contracting - Private/public partnerships - Strategic alliances
Joint ventures - Consortium - type
Voluntary
Charitable associations and trusts at national and local levels, including business/professional, sports, heritage and community groups
M A J O R S T A K E H O L D E R T Y P E S I N T O U R I S M
Public (government and government - funded organizations ) ❑ Central government departments and government - funded organizations may be directly or indirectly involved in tourism . ❑ The rationale for government involvement often revolves around notions of the public good, i . e . because society benefits through the provision of the good/service which would not exist unless the government intervened . In other cases, the government has decided to regulate activity and set up some way of doing so . ❑ For sponsored museums and sporting facilities, there is a direct relationship between the public and the good or service .

M A J O R S T A K E H O L D E R T Y P E S I N T O U R I S M
Public (government and government - funded organizations ) ❑ The government also operates locally, usually on a city and/or regional basis . ❑ These act as a second tier of government, determined by national policies and funding . ❑ Public/public partnerships relate to situations where public agencies work together, e . g . some development projects and planning areas where it is better to have an umbrella organization . ❑ Similarly, private/public partnerships are where the government combines with private enterprises for a development project such as the development of a conference center and hotel complex . ❑ Governments and their public agencies may also enlist the help of voluntary organizations . Thus, for example, a heritage organization with special skills may be contracted to run an attraction .

M A J O R S T A K E H O L D E R T Y P E S I N T O U R I S M
C ommercial

O perations ❑ Commercial operators or for - profit operators may be publicly or privately owned . ❑ A public limited company (plc) is an organization that issues shares traded on a stock exchange . ❑ Thus, ownership is spread among organizations, such as pension funds, and individuals . ❑ Private operations are usually run by a sole proprietor or through a partnership, often with a family focus . ❑ Private operations that want to grow may change their status to places .
M A J O R S T A K E H O L D E R T Y P E S I N T O U R I S M
Commercial

Operations
While many commercial organizations retain complete direct control over their operations, several alternative formats to direct control are used, for example : ■ Franchising – where a business concept including a proprietary trademark/license, an operations ‘recipe’, and backup management training and support systems, is franchised to another operator in exchange for a set - up fee and an annual royalty . ■ Management contracting – where the owner of capital resources (e . g . buildings) agrees that another firm will run a defined area of operations in exchange for a fee ;
M A J O R S T A K E H O L D E R T Y P E S I N T O U R I S M
Commercial

Operations ■ Strategic alliance – an arrangement where two or more organizations share resources to pursue a joint aim . For example, a joint venture refers to a project where partners pool resources to set up a new, jointly owned enterprise . ■ A consortium is a looser arrangement where individual businesses retain autonomy while engaging in activities such as joint purchasing and joint promotion . There are many examples of successful consortiums among hotels . Some are locally based and jointly promote occupancy during periods of low demand . Others provide comprehensive backup reservation technologies with associated international branding and marketing benefits .

Similarly, airline code sharing and marketing agreements by Star Alliance and One World provide marketing benefits to their members .

M A J O R S T A K E H O L D E R T Y P E S I N T O U R I S M
V oluntary

O rganizations ❑ Voluntary organizations may also have tourism involvement . ❑ These cover local sports, historical and museum trusts, and, at a national level, organizations . ❑ In addition, voluntary organizations across a spectrum of professional and leisure fields provide help in promoting destinations, interpretation services for visitors, and administration and staffing for sports and arts events festivals, for example .


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