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Technology-Driven Agility in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems
Introduction
Automation technology (AT) has gained popularity in many industries worldwide, particularly autonomous vehicles. The technology, often referred to as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), has diverse applications, including military, construction video mapping, medical search and rescue, hidden area exploration, oil rigs, and aerial surveillance (Mohsan et al. 1). Due to the rapid development of the technological world, the UAVs have gained attention since they have peculiarities, especially payload capabilities, swift mobility, and remote access. Consequently, the analysis explores the capabilities and emerging applications of UAVs. While errors in the use of drones have caused several challenges or risks to the safety of individuals in various sectors of its applications, the goal is to examine how to use a counter UAV system that protects personal, commercial, public, or military facilities from uncontrollable UAVs.

Problem Statement and Rationale for Focusing on UAVs
UAV technology has changed many industries. However, despite all its benefits, it has a few drawbacks. Despite the fact that drones focus on perfection, they are crafted flawlessly. They can easily and quickly become manipulated and trespass on an individual’s privacy. Besides, the use of drones has been criticized for causing safety downfalls (Nawaz et al. 87). Safety is a primary element that should be prioritized when operating them. Those that are outfitted with high-quality sensors identify probable collisions and securely avoid obstacles. The failure to navigate barriers can lead to harm not only to humans but to their properties due to the collisions and related risks. Besides, they are susceptible to software issues or malfunctions. Some of the drones have fired weapons at civilians, leading to notable levels of casualties, harm, and damages due to errors with software patches or malfunctions. The technology used in drone design is still being improved to alleviate accidents or dangers that can influence the health and safety of human lives. They are susceptible to wild animal attacks. Besides, they are at times dangerous to nature (Nawaz et al. 89). When a drone operator moves in a domain with a notable number of wild animals, it is possible to crash against a tree or lead to a conflict with a susceptible animal. Therefore, as much as evidence reveals the advantages of using UAVs, there appear to be some drawbacks that have to be addressed. A survey of UAVs reveals an issue with the use of drones due to the dangers they pose. A counter UAV system should be used to safeguard personal, commercial, public, or military facilities from the uncontrollable ones. The reason for selection is that their utility has been growing across different sectors (Mohsan et al. 147). Both software and hardware of the devices are susceptible to certain risks, including security issues. Considering the wide range of applicability of drones, one should anticipate that security is a top priority for professional UAVs. Studies depict that professional UAVs are not as safe as one could anticipate. Others have revealed that by learning the way the UAV communicates with the remote controller, one can execute an attack and potentially assume control over it (Mohsan et al. 147). Hence, they have a wide array of matters that need to be understood and addressed.

Related Literature
In recent times, agriculture presents an ample scope for drone development because it reduces economic costs in the sector (Rahman et al. 1). The study illustrates that drones can spray pesticides and fertilizers, perform field analysis, and seed and soil sowing during farming. When used in this method, the farmers would reduce the health concerns from using pesticides and fertilizers. Besides, the number of workers would reduce, helping the farmers to reduce the cost of farming. Another related application is in protecting various systems from uncontrollable UAVs. According to Kang et al., implementing drones for different functionalities, including military or personal use, may present challenges, among them intentional malfunctions or attacks (168671).  This research reviews the UAVs for application and capabilities. UAVs are systems operated remotely to perform tasks depending on the requirements. In examining their popularity, Kim et al. opine that they first gained fame for use in military reconnaissance, intelligence, surveillance, and target acquisition applications (3). However, the recent exploration of drone technology has gained an exceptional range of applications because of the technologically savvy environment. Increased technologies have enabled scientists to develop agile systems with a wide range of applications
Continuation

The main technological components of drones include an accelerator and GPS (global positioning systems). The former plays a critical role in estimating the orientation and the drone’s position during flight. It enables the drone operator to know the exact position and orientation of the vehicle. Additionally, it plays a pivotal role in enabling drones to use fixed satellites to obtain location information. Without it, the UAV would be unable to navigate long distances and return “home” safely after losing connection with the controller.
Payload Capacity of Drones. The payload capacity of a drone is the weight that it can carry. It often determines the features and operational capabilities. A particular aspect is that it is often counted outside the drone’s weight and takes account of packages for delivery, cameras, or sensors. Payload capacity varies from one drone to another based on the primary purpose for which a the machine was developed.
Drone Control System. Ideally, the control system comprises two loops: the inner and the outer loop. Both provide the drones with the ability to function as expected. While the inner loop is responsible for controlling its angular velocity, the outer loop is responsible for controlling the altitude. The feature indicates that the inner loop enables drones to move in any horizontal direction while the outer loop enables them to move in a vertical direction. Therefore, it would be impossible for drones to fly without the two control loops.
Applications of Drones. Drones have a wide application area, including civil defense protection, power-line inspection, and road transportation monitoring. They act as first responders in civil defense protection, augmenting the civil defense forces’ ability to respond to emergencies. Furthermore, they are applied in power-line inspection to offer uninterrupted power supply by constantly inspecting power lines, especially in inaccessible locations. Finally, they are used to monitor the existing road transport networks for effective traffic management and future planning of road networks. The application areas refer to the current trends in drone technology to improve the processes within various fields.
Capabilities and Applications of UAVs

UAVs have divergent capabilities that enhance their utility. They can remain on station or near a combat area far beyond the capacities of manned systems. Even though there exist practical and theoretical limitations of the technology, by using a small number of vehicles, the capabilities push near-progressive surveillance for essentially definite periods. The vehicles have deck-cycle flexibility (Idrissi et al. 7). The feature enhances the advantages of long endurance that can be translated into more than the amount of time on station across an area. They have timeline flexibility capabilities since they can execute complex operations many hours before the main ones. Besides, they enhance distributed control as the user with the ideal circumstance awareness or the most immediate one can assume direct control when required to do so. Considering their various capabilities, they have a wide array of applications. Escape UAVs are effective and are the only tool that back up disaster management. In nuclear incidents and accidents, several foremost information squares measures sturdy the emission. They can be applied for fireplace identification, observation, and conjointly for the process of post-fire execution. Additionally, they have a wide array of applications in medical sciences (Idrissi et al. 8). They can provide first aid to the team, including dispensing to remote locations. Quick evacuation during earthquakes is possible since they can facilitate fast relocation of people and direct them to secure places. UAVs identify areas damaged by earthquakes and evacuate victims to safe places. They equally play a vital role in monitoring the weather conditions (Idrissi et al. 9). They have their applicability across the agricultural sector, especially in helping improve yields. They are mostly utilized in the developed nations for smart farming.
Discussion
The technological innovation in the drone kit is the reason for its highly agile unmanned aerial flights. The first functionality that enables the drone to work seamlessly is the motherboard, containing the hardware components for processing the software transactions. The primary components include the aircraft, payload, power supply, controller, and sensors (Jankowska 119). One of the components is the brushless motors that generate higher torque for the same weight as the brushed motors. Another element is the electronic speed controllers (ESC), offering high power, frequency, and resolution 3-phase to the motors. The motherboard powers the other components of the drone through software components.
Despite the hardware functionality, the software components are essential to enable them to perform the operator’s actions and other intended functions. The first software component that the kit uses is the Pix4D mapping software for image analysis based on the maps and the photographic capture of the drones. Another software component that powers the drone is the Pixhawk. It is a software component that runs various hardware components in a drone toolkit. It acts as an Arduino or Raspberry Pi. Hence, the software component ensures that the hardware works as required
Recommendations
Various strategies can be used to improve and develop a new vision for drones. One of the new areas is around regulation. The laws that facilitate drone functions are complicated. They should account for all the ways that UAVs are presently being used and how they could be applied in the coming days (Stampa et al. 7). Developing laws that push for innovation but restrain infringements on privacy and misapplication of airspace would be necessary. The other recommendation is on automation. Hence, automating drone flight patterns launches several additional challenges, including developing a way to navigate barriers and make sure that two drones do not interrupt each other (Stampa et al. 8). The vehicles need to have a higher degree of reliability before they are utilized for deliveries or related applications. Of the three recommendations, the ideal one would be automation. Proper automation of the drones should be enhanced to make sure that they are safe for use. Automation, although not completely devoid of human control, should be minimal. In this regard, there is a need to make sure that the software and hardware used on the drones are efficient and not susceptible to failure. Proper automation would help in alleviating launch failures, navigation errors, or interruptions.
Research Goals and Conclusion
The research focuses on the improvement of the application of drones across divergent sectors, including disaster management and control. The study is aimed at developing solutions for both software and hardware that would enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of the application of UAVs. The main focus is on developing innovative solutions that would reduce human errors in controlling drones. Most evidently, the research so far has been amicable. The use of surveys across different applications of drones and their capabilities have revealed that there is still much that should be done. Secondary research has been done across different platforms, including news articles, which have provided detailed information regarding the applications and capabilities of drones across different segments. The research outcomes have shown the need for detailed research across the drone segment. Further research will focus on the integration of UAVs with other innovations and how they can help improve their functionality. The other aspect is to use primary data, especially through expert interviews to determine the issues around the use of UAVs. The primary data should reveal some of the improvements that can be made. To conclude, drones have recently gained popularity because of their capabilities and applications in various fields. They were first used in the military for various functions, including reconnaissance to provide a super military city without endangering individuals during battle. Nevertheless, it is currently used in agriculture, photography, security, and medical search and rescue. The various technologies identified include the GPS, payload capacity, and control system. The findings of this research identify the software and hardware functionality of the drones, including the components of the motherboard and their connections or integrations with the software system to enable it to run.


Original text

Technology-Driven Agility in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems
Introduction
Automation technology (AT) has gained popularity in many industries worldwide, particularly autonomous vehicles. The technology, often referred to as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), has diverse applications, including military, construction video mapping, medical search and rescue, hidden area exploration, oil rigs, and aerial surveillance (Mohsan et al. 1). Due to the rapid development of the technological world, the UAVs have gained attention since they have peculiarities, especially payload capabilities, swift mobility, and remote access. Consequently, the analysis explores the capabilities and emerging applications of UAVs. While errors in the use of drones have caused several challenges or risks to the safety of individuals in various sectors of its applications, the goal is to examine how to use a counter UAV system that protects personal, commercial, public, or military facilities from uncontrollable UAVs.


Problem Statement and Rationale for Focusing on UAVs
UAV technology has changed many industries. However, despite all its benefits, it has a few drawbacks. Despite the fact that drones focus on perfection, they are crafted flawlessly. They can easily and quickly become manipulated and trespass on an individual’s privacy. Besides, the use of drones has been criticized for causing safety downfalls (Nawaz et al. 87). Safety is a primary element that should be prioritized when operating them. Those that are outfitted with high-quality sensors identify probable collisions and securely avoid obstacles. The failure to navigate barriers can lead to harm not only to humans but to their properties due to the collisions and related risks. Besides, they are susceptible to software issues or malfunctions. Some of the drones have fired weapons at civilians, leading to notable levels of casualties, harm, and damages due to errors with software patches or malfunctions. The technology used in drone design is still being improved to alleviate accidents or dangers that can influence the health and safety of human lives. They are susceptible to wild animal attacks. Besides, they are at times dangerous to nature (Nawaz et al. 89). When a drone operator moves in a domain with a notable number of wild animals, it is possible to crash against a tree or lead to a conflict with a susceptible animal. Therefore, as much as evidence reveals the advantages of using UAVs, there appear to be some drawbacks that have to be addressed. A survey of UAVs reveals an issue with the use of drones due to the dangers they pose. A counter UAV system should be used to safeguard personal, commercial, public, or military facilities from the uncontrollable ones. The reason for selection is that their utility has been growing across different sectors (Mohsan et al. 147). Both software and hardware of the devices are susceptible to certain risks, including security issues. Considering the wide range of applicability of drones, one should anticipate that security is a top priority for professional UAVs. Studies depict that professional UAVs are not as safe as one could anticipate. Others have revealed that by learning the way the UAV communicates with the remote controller, one can execute an attack and potentially assume control over it (Mohsan et al. 147). Hence, they have a wide array of matters that need to be understood and addressed.


Related Literature
In recent times, agriculture presents an ample scope for drone development because it reduces economic costs in the sector (Rahman et al. 1). The study illustrates that drones can spray pesticides and fertilizers, perform field analysis, and seed and soil sowing during farming. When used in this method, the farmers would reduce the health concerns from using pesticides and fertilizers. Besides, the number of workers would reduce, helping the farmers to reduce the cost of farming. Another related application is in protecting various systems from uncontrollable UAVs. According to Kang et al., implementing drones for different functionalities, including military or personal use, may present challenges, among them intentional malfunctions or attacks (168671).  This research reviews the UAVs for application and capabilities. UAVs are systems operated remotely to perform tasks depending on the requirements. In examining their popularity, Kim et al. opine that they first gained fame for use in military reconnaissance, intelligence, surveillance, and target acquisition applications (3). However, the recent exploration of drone technology has gained an exceptional range of applications because of the technologically savvy environment. Increased technologies have enabled scientists to develop agile systems with a wide range of applications
Continuation


The main technological components of drones include an accelerator and GPS (global positioning systems). The former plays a critical role in estimating the orientation and the drone’s position during flight. It enables the drone operator to know the exact position and orientation of the vehicle. Additionally, it plays a pivotal role in enabling drones to use fixed satellites to obtain location information. Without it, the UAV would be unable to navigate long distances and return “home” safely after losing connection with the controller.
Payload Capacity of Drones. The payload capacity of a drone is the weight that it can carry. It often determines the features and operational capabilities. A particular aspect is that it is often counted outside the drone’s weight and takes account of packages for delivery, cameras, or sensors. Payload capacity varies from one drone to another based on the primary purpose for which a the machine was developed.
Drone Control System. Ideally, the control system comprises two loops: the inner and the outer loop. Both provide the drones with the ability to function as expected. While the inner loop is responsible for controlling its angular velocity, the outer loop is responsible for controlling the altitude. The feature indicates that the inner loop enables drones to move in any horizontal direction while the outer loop enables them to move in a vertical direction. Therefore, it would be impossible for drones to fly without the two control loops.
Applications of Drones. Drones have a wide application area, including civil defense protection, power-line inspection, and road transportation monitoring. They act as first responders in civil defense protection, augmenting the civil defense forces’ ability to respond to emergencies. Furthermore, they are applied in power-line inspection to offer uninterrupted power supply by constantly inspecting power lines, especially in inaccessible locations. Finally, they are used to monitor the existing road transport networks for effective traffic management and future planning of road networks. The application areas refer to the current trends in drone technology to improve the processes within various fields.
Capabilities and Applications of UAVs


UAVs have divergent capabilities that enhance their utility. They can remain on station or near a combat area far beyond the capacities of manned systems. Even though there exist practical and theoretical limitations of the technology, by using a small number of vehicles, the capabilities push near-progressive surveillance for essentially definite periods. The vehicles have deck-cycle flexibility (Idrissi et al. 7). The feature enhances the advantages of long endurance that can be translated into more than the amount of time on station across an area. They have timeline flexibility capabilities since they can execute complex operations many hours before the main ones. Besides, they enhance distributed control as the user with the ideal circumstance awareness or the most immediate one can assume direct control when required to do so. Considering their various capabilities, they have a wide array of applications. Escape UAVs are effective and are the only tool that back up disaster management. In nuclear incidents and accidents, several foremost information squares measures sturdy the emission. They can be applied for fireplace identification, observation, and conjointly for the process of post-fire execution. Additionally, they have a wide array of applications in medical sciences (Idrissi et al. 8). They can provide first aid to the team, including dispensing to remote locations. Quick evacuation during earthquakes is possible since they can facilitate fast relocation of people and direct them to secure places. UAVs identify areas damaged by earthquakes and evacuate victims to safe places. They equally play a vital role in monitoring the weather conditions (Idrissi et al. 9). They have their applicability across the agricultural sector, especially in helping improve yields. They are mostly utilized in the developed nations for smart farming.
Discussion
The technological innovation in the drone kit is the reason for its highly agile unmanned aerial flights. The first functionality that enables the drone to work seamlessly is the motherboard, containing the hardware components for processing the software transactions. The primary components include the aircraft, payload, power supply, controller, and sensors (Jankowska 119). One of the components is the brushless motors that generate higher torque for the same weight as the brushed motors. Another element is the electronic speed controllers (ESC), offering high power, frequency, and resolution 3-phase to the motors. The motherboard powers the other components of the drone through software components.
Despite the hardware functionality, the software components are essential to enable them to perform the operator’s actions and other intended functions. The first software component that the kit uses is the Pix4D mapping software for image analysis based on the maps and the photographic capture of the drones. Another software component that powers the drone is the Pixhawk. It is a software component that runs various hardware components in a drone toolkit. It acts as an Arduino or Raspberry Pi. Hence, the software component ensures that the hardware works as required
Recommendations
Various strategies can be used to improve and develop a new vision for drones. One of the new areas is around regulation. The laws that facilitate drone functions are complicated. They should account for all the ways that UAVs are presently being used and how they could be applied in the coming days (Stampa et al. 7). Developing laws that push for innovation but restrain infringements on privacy and misapplication of airspace would be necessary. The other recommendation is on automation. Hence, automating drone flight patterns launches several additional challenges, including developing a way to navigate barriers and make sure that two drones do not interrupt each other (Stampa et al. 8). The vehicles need to have a higher degree of reliability before they are utilized for deliveries or related applications. Of the three recommendations, the ideal one would be automation. Proper automation of the drones should be enhanced to make sure that they are safe for use. Automation, although not completely devoid of human control, should be minimal. In this regard, there is a need to make sure that the software and hardware used on the drones are efficient and not susceptible to failure. Proper automation would help in alleviating launch failures, navigation errors, or interruptions.
Research Goals and Conclusion
The research focuses on the improvement of the application of drones across divergent sectors, including disaster management and control. The study is aimed at developing solutions for both software and hardware that would enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of the application of UAVs. The main focus is on developing innovative solutions that would reduce human errors in controlling drones. Most evidently, the research so far has been amicable. The use of surveys across different applications of drones and their capabilities have revealed that there is still much that should be done. Secondary research has been done across different platforms, including news articles, which have provided detailed information regarding the applications and capabilities of drones across different segments. The research outcomes have shown the need for detailed research across the drone segment. Further research will focus on the integration of UAVs with other innovations and how they can help improve their functionality. The other aspect is to use primary data, especially through expert interviews to determine the issues around the use of UAVs. The primary data should reveal some of the improvements that can be made. To conclude, drones have recently gained popularity because of their capabilities and applications in various fields. They were first used in the military for various functions, including reconnaissance to provide a super military city without endangering individuals during battle. Nevertheless, it is currently used in agriculture, photography, security, and medical search and rescue. The various technologies identified include the GPS, payload capacity, and control system. The findings of this research identify the software and hardware functionality of the drones, including the components of the motherboard and their connections or integrations with the software system to enable it to run.


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